THE ARCHAEOLOGY AND -
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THE ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY OF LANDSCAPE The study of landscape has become increasingly important in archaeology, anthropology and geography. Researchers have raised their perspective beyond that of the individual site or settlement to address the ways in which social process and cultural meanings are shaped by and leave their mark upon the landscape. The Archaeology and Anthropology of Landscape contains twenty-eight thematic chapters based on contributions to the third World Archaeological Congress held in New Delhi in 1994. Contributors from the British Isles, Scandinavia, North and South America, India, Australia and the Pacific demonstrate the value of cross-disciplinary research in the fields of archaeology, anthropology and geography. They investigate how the meaning of landscapes has either been retained or transformed over time. They also explore how and why different communities sharing the same environment have different perceptions of their surroundings, especially where one is a colonising power. This book provides new and varied case studies of landscape and environment from five continents and will be of interest to all concerned with the theoretical debates as well as the policy-making issues concerning development and the management of heritage. Peter J.Ucko is Director of the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. Robert Layton is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Durham.
ONE WORLD ARCHAEOLOGY Series Editor: P.J.Ucko Animals into Art H.Morphy (ed.), vol. 7 Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity S.J.Shennan (ed.), vol. 10 Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World H.F.Cleere (ed.), vol. 9 The Archaeology and Anthropology of Landscape: shaping your landscape P.J.Ucko & R.Layton (eds), vol. 30 Archaeology and Language I: theoretical and methodological orientations R.Blench & M.Spriggs (eds), vol. 27 Archaeology and Language II: correlating archaeological data and linguistic hypotheses R.Blench & M.Spriggs (eds), vol. 29 Archaeology and the Information Age: a global perspective P.Reilly & S.Rahtz (eds), vol. 21 The Archaeology of Africa: food, metals and towns T.Shaw, P.Sinclair, B.Andah & A.Okpoko (eds), vol. 20 Centre and Periphery: comparative studies in archaeology T.C.Champion (ed.), vol. 11 Conflict in the Archaeology of Living Traditions R.Layton (ed.), vol. 8 Domination and Resistance D.Miller, M.J.Rowlands & C.Tilley (eds), vol. 3 Early Human Behaviour in Global Context: the rise and diversity of the Lower Palaeolithic Record M.D.Petraglia & R.Korisettar (eds), vol. 28 The Excluded Past: archaeology in education P.Stone & R.MacKenzie (eds), vol. 17 Foraging and Farming: the evolution of plant exploitation D.R.Harris & G.C.Hillman (eds), vol. 13 From the Baltic to the Black Sea: studies in medieval archaeology D.Austin & L.Alcock (eds), vol. 18 Historical Archaeology: back from the edge P.P.A.Funari, M.Hall & S.Jones (eds), vol. 32 Hunters of the Recent Past L.B.Davis & B.O.K.Reeves (eds), vol. 15 The Meanings of Things: material culture and symbolic expression I.Hodder (ed.), vol. 6 The Origins of Human Behaviour R.A.Foley (ed.), vol. 19
The Politics of the Past P.Gathercole & D.Lowenthal (eds), vol. 12 The Prehistory of Food: appetites for change C.Gosden & J.G.Hather (eds), vol. 31 The Presented Past: heritage, museums and education P.G.Stone & B.L.Molyneaux (eds), vol. 25 Sacred Sites, Sacred Places D.L.Carmichael, J.Hubert, B.Reeves & A.Schanche (eds), vol. 23 Signifying Animals: human meaning in the natural world R.G.Willis (ed.), vol. 16 Social Construction of the Past: representation as power G.C.Bond & A.Gilliam (eds), vol. 24 State and Society: the emergence and development of social hierarchy and political centralization J.Gledhill, B.Bender & M.T.Larsen (eds), vol. 4 Time, Process and Structured Transformation in Archaeology S.E.van der Leeuw & J.McGlade (eds), vol. 26 Tropical Archaeobotany: applications and developments J.G.Hather (ed.), vol. 22 The Walking Larder: patterns of domestication, pastoralism and predation J.Clutton-Brock (ed.), vol. 2 What is an Animal? T.Ingold (ed.), vol. 1 What���s New? A closer look at the process of innovation S.E.van der Leeuw & R.Torrence (eds), vol. 14 Who Needs the Past? Indigenous values and archaeology R.Layton (ed.), vol. 5 iii
THE ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY OF LANDSCAPE Shaping your landscape Edited by Peter J.Ucko and Robert Layton London and New York
First published 1999 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. ���To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge���s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.��� Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 �� 1999 selection and editorial matter, Peter J.Ucko and Robert Layton individual chapters, the contributors All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data The archaeology and anthropology of landscape: shaping your landscape/edited by Peter J.Ucko and Robert Layton. ���(One World Archaeology) Papers presented at the third World Archaeological Congress, held in New Delhi, India, Dec. 1994 Includes bibliographical references and index (hardbound: alk. paper) 1. Landscape assessment���Cross-cultural studies���Congresses. 2. Landscape archaeology���Congresses. I. Ucko, Peter J. II. Layton, Robert. III. World Archaeological Congress (3rd: 1994: New Delhi, India) IV. Series. GF90.A73 1994 304.2���dc21 98���20323 ISBN 0-203-20244-9 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-26619-6 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0-415-11767-4 (Print Edition)
Contents List of figures xix List of tables xxii List of contributors xxiii Preface xxvi 1 Introduction: gazing on the landscape and encountering the environment Robert Layton and Peter J.Ucko 1 Explanation 2 Understanding 2 The impact of postmodernism 3 Writing as oppression 5 Is there a world out there? 6 Expressions of culture in the environment 8 Human adaptation and transformation of the environment 9 Social strategies which co-ordinate or coerce action 10 Reading the landscape 11 Two problems for archaeology 12 Conclusions 15 Acknowledgements 17 References 17 2 Chronologies of landscape John C.Barrett 21 Acknowledgements 30 References 30
3 Subverting the Western Gaze: mapping alternative worlds Barbara Bender 31 Introduction 31 Western maps in western contexts 34 Western maps in contact situations 36 Indigenous maps 40 Conclusions 41 Notes 42 Acknowledgement 43 References 43 4 Social landsciapes in Irish prehistory Gabriel Cooney 46 Introduction 46 Landscapes from the outside: the extent of prehistoric settlement 47 People, pathways and places 48 A sense of place 51 The landscape as context of activity 55 Transforming the landscape 60 References 61 5 Small-scale communities and the landscape of Swaledale (North Yorkshire, UK) Andrew Fleming 66 References 73 6 A historical interactive landscape in the heart of Europe: the case of Bohemia Jarom��r BenesMarek Zvelebil 74 Theorising landscapes 74 Landscapes in action: the case of northern Bohemia 79 Enculturation of the landscape 79 Land division and field systems 86 Burials as territorial markers 86 vii
Focal places in the landscape 87 Conclusion 90 Note 90 Acknowledgements 90 References 91 7 Is landscape history possible? Or, how can we study the desertion of farms? Mats Widgren 95 Introduction 95 Is landscape history possible? 95 Form versus process 96 Nature versus culture ecological versus social theory 98 Is it possible to survive on a deserted farm? 99 Surveying 100 Agro-ecosystems over time 101 Social and tenurial development 102 Note 103 Acknowledgement 104 References 104 8 The historic environment, historic landscapes, and space���time ���action models in landscape archaeology Timothy Darvill 106 Introduction 106 Archaeology and the landscape 107 Landscapes as ���objects��� 107 Landscapes as ���subjects��� 107 Critique of traditional archaeological approaches to landscape 108 Landscape as context 110 Space 110 Time 111 Social action 111 viii
Time-space-action models in archaeology and beyond 111 Landscape and the social use of space: Stonehenge 113 Conclusions 117 Notes 118 References 119 9 Protecting time and space: understanding historic landscape for conservation in England Graham Fairclough 121 Introduction 121 Philosophy and definition 122 Time 123 Space and scale 128 Articulation 129 Territorial inter-relationships 129 Regional or national patterning 130 Methods and practice 130 Conclusion 135 References 136 10 The role of caste hierarchy in the spatial organisation of a village landscape in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka Nilu Abeyaratne 137 References 146 11 The anatomy of dispossession: a study in the displacement of the tribals from their traditional landscape in the Narmada Valley due to the Sardar Sarovar Project Ashish Chadha 148 Introduction 148 The Sardar Dam and its impact 149 The emergence of popular protest movements 151 Are the tribals an indigenous group? 152 A changing relationship to the landscape 155 ix
The dislocation, an experience in an alien landscape 157 An attitudinal problem 158 References 160 12 Perceiving ���your��� land: neighbourhood settlements and the Hauz-i Rani Sunil Kumar 161 Introduction 161 The medievel hauz, a local community and the city of Delhi 162 Sports in the ���Queen���s Reservoir��� 167 Conclusion: a diachronic study of landscapes and perceptions 173 Notes 175 References 175 13 In the shadow of New Delhi: understanding the landscape through village eyes Nayanjot LahiriUpinder Singh 177 Introduction 177 The physical landscape and rural perceptions 178 The archaeological landscape and rural perceptions 186 Conclusion 189 Notes 189 Acknowledgements 189 References 189 14 Ancestors, place and people: social landscapes in Aboriginal Australia Claire Smith 191 Introduction 191 The study area 192 Colonial history 192 Conceptions of place in northern Australia 194 Discussion 200 Notes 204 x
Acknowledgements 204 References 205 15 Competing perceptions of landscape in Kowanyama, North Queensland Veronica Strang 208 Notes 219 References 219 16 The Alawa totemic landscape: ecology, religion and politics Robert Layton 221 Four Alawa legends 222 Yargala (the male Plains Kangaroo) 222 Wadabir, the Black (Water) Goanna 223 Ganyila (Dogs) 223 Jambirina (Bush Turkey) 224 Subsistence 224 The environment 224 Ancestors and ecology 225 People and the land 225 Ecology and estates 225 Inheritance of rights and responsibilities 230 Performing ceremonies 231 Kinship and country 232 Conception affiliation 233 Observance of food prohibitions 233 Access to and care of sites 233 Response to colonisation 234 The continuing Alawa presence 235 Stability and flexibility 237 Tracks and estates 237 Maintaining custodians for the landscape 238 xi
Conclusion 240 Notes 240 References 241 17 Managing the world: territorial negotiations among the Andoque people of the Colombian Amazon M��nica Espinosa ArangoFisi Andoque 242 Introduction 242 Possessing the Amazon 244 Shamanism 245 Fisi, a shaman (sabedor) 246 Possessing the landscape 247 Eco-politics and contemporary territorial management 251 Notes 253 References 254 18 The perception of landscape amongst the Q���eqchi���, a group of slash-and-burn farmers in the Alta Verapaz (Guatemala) Almudena Hernando Gonzalo 256 Introduction 256 Space and identity 257 The perception of landscape amongst the Q���eqchi��� 260 Landscape as mythical space 261 Conclusion 264 Acknowledgements 264 References 264 19 Self-determination in cultural resource management: indigenous peoples��� interpretation of history and of places and landscapes John Allison 266 Around-the-Neck: the road to enclosure for the Klamath, Modoc and Yahooskin 267 Bargaining with the conqueror 267 Caught in the grip of enclosure 268 xii
Rebellion, capture and punishment 271 Final dispossession 272 How archaeologists can find meaning in life 273 Time, space and perceived reality 274 The cultural nature of the roadblocks to indigenous self- determination 276 A setting for landscapes in the ecology of mind: a separate reality 277 European-American archaeology and indigenous peoples��� history 278 Cultural resource management in the USA 279 American archaeologists��� closed system model 281 Bringing it all back home 281 The resurgence of the sovereign rights of indigenous peoples 282 How to assert sovereignity in cultural resource management 283 Refocusing cultural resource management, reversing enclosure 283 Cultural resource management in a multi-cultural society 284 References 285 20 Traditional beliefs, sacred sites and rituals of sacrifice of the Nenets of the Gydan Peninsula in the modem context Galina KharyuchiLyudmila Lipatova 286 Notes 298 21 Definition, ownership and conservation of indigenous landscapes at Salapwuk, Pohnpei, Micronesia William S.AyresRufino Mauricio 299 Introduction 299 The Pohnpei resources project, Micronesia 301 Archaeological features on Pohnpei 303 The Salapwuk field project 303 Site survey methods 304 The significance of the Salapwuk settlement 306 Interactions with the contemporary Salapwuk community 306 Salapwuk land-use practices 307 xiii
Summary of Salapwuk survey results 308 Landscape features summary 311 Salapwuk���s landscape significance 314 Preservation and conservation perspectives 315 Summary and conclusions 317 Site survey 318 Acknowledgements 320 References 320 22 Exploring the prehistory of hunter-gatherer attachments to place: an example from the Keep River area, Northern Territory, Australia Richard FullagarLesley Head 323 Exploring the prehistory of landscapes 323 Dimensions of landscape 323 Prehistoric hunter-gatherer symbolic landscapes 324 The study area 325 Djibigun and Jinmium, a story of attachment to place 326 Getting at antiquity 328 The prehistory of the biophysical landscape 328 Excavations at Jinmium rockshelter 328 Stone tools and plant remains 329 Ochre and rock art 331 Discussion and conclusions 333 References 334 23 Towards an archaeology of mimesis and rain-making in Namibian rock art John Kinahan 337 Introduction 337 The hills and the rain 338 Rock art and ritual 341 Hunting the elephant 347 xiv