Azithromycin versus ceftriaxone for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in children.
A total of 108 children aged 4-17 years were randomized to receive 7 days of azithromycin (10 mg/kg/day; maximum, 500 mg/day) or ceftriaxone (75 mg/kg/day; maximum, 2.5 g/day), to assess the efficacy of the agents for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. Salmonella typhi was isolated from the initial cultures of blood samples from 64 patients. A total of 31 (91%) of the 34 patients treated with azithromycin and 29 (97%) of the 30 patients treated with ceftriaxone were cured (P>.05). All 64 isolates were susceptible to azithromycin and ceftriaxone. Of the patients treated with ceftriaxone, 4 subsequently had relapse of their infection. No serious side effects occurred in any study subject. Oral azithromycin administered once daily appears to be effective for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in children. If these results are confirmed, the agent could be a convenient alternative for the treatment of typhoid fever, especially in individuals in developing countries where medical resources are scarce.