Bacopa monnieri modulates antioxi...
B Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Penn. Synonym Herpestis monnieria (Linn.) H. B. & K. Moniera cuneifolia Michx. Family Scrophulariaceae. Habitat Throughout the plains of India in damp marshy areas. English Thyme-leaved Gratiola. Ayurvedic Braahmi, Aindri, Nir- braahmi, Kapotavankaa, Bhaarati, Darduradalaa, Matsyaakshaka, Shaaluraparni, Mandukaparni (also equated with Centella asiatica Linn., synonym Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn. Umbelliferae, Apiaceae). Unani Brahmi. Siddha/Tamil Piramivazhukkai, Neerbrami. Folk Jalaneem, Safed-Chammi. Action Adaptogenic, astringent, diuretic, sedative, potent nervine tonic, anti-anxiety agent (improves mental functions, used in insanity, epilepsy), antispasmodic (used in bronchitis, asthma and diarrhoea). Key application Inpsychicdisorders and as a brain tonic. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) B. monnieri has been shown to cause prolonged elevated level of cerebral glutamic acid and a transient increase in GABA level. It is assumed that en- dogenous increase in brain glutamine may be helpful in the process of learn- ing. The herb contains the alkaloids brahmine, herpestine, and a mixture of three bases. Brahmine is highly tox- ic in therapeutic doses it resembles strychnine. The herb also contains the saponins, monnierin, hersaponin, bacosides A and B. Bacosides A and B possess haemolytic activity. Her- saponin is reported to possess car- diotonic and sedative properties. It was found, as in case of reserpene, to deplete nor-adrenaline and ���-HT content of the rat brain. An alcoholic extract of the plant in a dose of ������ mg/kg produced tranquil- izing effect on albino rats and dogs, but the action was weaker than that produced by chlorpromazine. Dosage Whole plant������������ g powder. (API Vol. II.) Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) Delile, Synonym B. roxburghii Planch. Family Simaroubaceae Balani- taceae. Habitat Drier parts of India, particularly in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Deccan. English Desert Date.
B 78 Balanophora involucrata Hook. f. Ayurvedic Ingudi, Angaar Vrksha, Taapasadrum, Taapasa vrksha, Dirghkantaka. Unani Hingan, Hanguul. Siddha/Tamil Nanjunda. Folk Hingol, Hingota, Hingothaa. Action Seed���expectorant, bechic. Oil���antibacterial, antifungal. Fruit���used in whooping cough also in leucoderma and other skin diseases. Bark���spasmolytic. The plant is reported to be a po- tential source of diosgenin (used in oral contraceptives). The fruit pulp contains steroidal saponins. The dios- genin content of the fruit varies from ���.��� to ���.���%. Aqueous extract of fruits showed spermicidal activity without local vaginal irritation in human up to ���% sperms became sluggish on con- tact with the plant extract and then became immobile within ������ s the ef- fect was concentration-related. Protracted administration of the fruit pulp extract produced hypergly- caemia-induced testicular dysfunction in dogs. An aqueous extract of meso- carp exhibited antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. The seed contains balanitins, which exhibit cytostatic activity. Dosage Leaf, seed, bark, fruit��� ������������������ ml decoction. (CCRAS.) Balanophora involucrata Hook. f. Family Balanophoraceae. Habitat The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim and Darjeeling at altitudes of ���,���������������,��������� m Ayurvedic Chavya (tentative synonym). Action Astringent. Used in piles, also in rheumatism. Arelatedspecies, B.polyandra Griff., found in Nagaland, Manipur, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pra- desh at ���,��������� m, gave a phenolic gly- coside, coniferin. The plant is used as an antiasthmatic. Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell.-Arg. Synonym B. axillare Bl. B. polyandrum Wt. Croton polyandrus Roxb. Family Euphorbiaceae. Habitat The Himalayas, Assam, Khasi Hills, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Peninsular India, ascending to ���,��������� m. Ayurvedic Danti, Nikumbha, Udumbarparni, Erandphalaa, Shighraa, Pratyak-shreni, Vishaalya. Baliospermum calycinum Muell- Arg. is considered as Naagadanti. Siddha/Tamil Neeradimuthu, Danti. Folk Jangli Jamaalgotaa. Action Seed���purgative. Leaves��� purgative (also used in dropsy), antiasthmatic (decoction is given in asthma). Latex���used for body ache and pain of joints. Root and seed oil���cathartic, antidropsical.
B Balsamodendron myrrha Nees. 79 Along with other therapeutic appli- cations, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of dried root in jaundice, abdominal lump and splenomegaly. The presence of steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids is reported in the leaves. The root contains phorbol derivatives. EtOH extract of roots showed in vivo activity in P-��������� lymphocytic leukae- mia. Dosage Root������������ g powder. (API Vol. III.) Balsamodendron mukul Hook. ex Stocks Synonym Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks) Engl. C. wightii (Arn.) Bhandari. Family Burseraceae. Habitat Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka. English Indian Bdellium, Gum Guggul. Ayurvedic Guggul, Devadhoop, Kaushika, Pur, Mahishaaksha, Palankash, Kumbha, Uluukhala. Unani Muqallal yahood, Muql, Bu-e-Jahudaan Siddha/Tamil Erumaikan Kungiliyam. Action Oleo-gum-resin���used for reducing obesity and in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, sciatica. Key application In the treatment of hyperlipidemia, hypercholestero- laemia and obesity. (WHO.) Guggulipid is hypocholesteremic. Guggul resin contains steroids���gug- glsterones Z and E, guggulsterols I��� V, diterpenoids volatile oil, including other constituents, contains a terpene hydrocarbon cembrene A. E- and Z- guggulsterones are characteristic con- stituents, which distinguish C. mukul from other Commiphore sp. Guggul resin increases catechola- mine biosynthesis and activity in cho- lesterol-fed rabbits, inhibits platelet ag- gregation, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and appears to activate the thyroid gland in rats and chicken. Z- guggulsterone may increase uptake of iodine by thyroid gland and increase oxygen uptake in liver and bicep tis- sues. (Planta Med ������������, ���, ���������������.) The gum is also used in hemiplegia and atherosclerotic disorders as a gar- gle in pyrrhoea aveolaris, chronic ton- silitis and pharyngitis. Fumes are rec- ommended in hay fever, chronic bron- chitis and nasal catarrh. Oleo-gum resin of Balsamodendron caudatum is also equated with Guggul in Siddha medicine. Dosage Oleo-gum-resin������������ g (API Vol. I.) ��������� mg to ��� g (CCRAS.) Balsamodendron myrrha Nees. Synonym Commiphora molmol Engl. C. abyssinica (Berg.) Engl. Family Burseraceae. Habitat Arabia, Somaliland. Ayurvedic Bola, Hiraabola, Surasa, Barbara, Gandharasa.
B 80 Balsamodendron opobalsamum Kunth. Unani Murmakki, Bol. Siddha/Tamil Vellaibolam. Action Oleo-gum-resin���em- menagogue (used for irregular menstruation and painful periods), anti-inflammatory (on pharyngitis and gingivitis), antiseptic, bac- teriostatic, antiviral, astringent, stimulant, expectorant, stomachic, carminative (in dyspepsia), a leuco- cytogenic agent (increases number of white cells in the blood). Used externally for treating acne, boils and pressure sores, internally as a blood purifier. Key application In topical treatment of mild inflammations of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa. (German Commission E.) As a gargle or mouth rinse for the treatment of aphthous ulcers, tonsillitis, common cold and gingivitis. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, ESCOP.) The gum (���������������%) contains acidic polysaccharides, volatile oil (������������%) including other constituents, heer- abolene, eugenol, furanosequiterpenes and monoterpenes. Myrrh is taken as a powder or a tinc- ture, rather than as an infusion used generally externally or as a gargle. Aqueous suspension of the gum resin decreased ethanol-induced and indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats. (J Ethnopharmacol, ������������, Jan������(���), ������������ ���������.) Dosage Gum-resin������������ g (CCRAS.) Balsamodendron opobalsamum Kunth. Synonym Commiphora opobalsa- mum (L.) Engl. Family Burseraceae. Habitat Found in countries on both sides of Red Sea. English Balsam tree, Balsam of Mecca, Balsam of Gilead. Unani Balsaan, Roghan-e-Balsaan (oil), Hab-e-Balsaan (fruit). Ood-e- Balsaan (wood). Action Used in diseases of the urinary tract. Balsams are diuretic and stimulate mucous tissues in small doses (nauseatic and purgative in large doses). In Unani medicine, the fruit is used as an expectorant and emmenagogue, also for neurological affections. The wood is also used as an ingredient in compounds for epilepsy and other nervine disorders. The oil is used ex- ternally for its anti-inflammatory and revitalizing properties. Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss. Synonym B. arundinaceae (Retz.) Roxb. Arundo bambos L. Family Gramineae Poaceae. Habitat Wild throughout India, especially in the hill forests of Western and Southern India. English Spiny or Thorny Bamboo.
B Barleria buxifolia Linn. 81 Ayurvedic Vansha, Venu, Kichaka, Trinadhwaj, Shatparvaa, Yavphala. Vanshalochana, Vansharochanaa, Shubhaa, tugaa, Tugaakshiri, Tvak- kshiri (Bamboo-manna). Starch of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., Zingiberaceae, was recommended a substitute for Vanshalochana (Ayurvedic Formularly of India, Part I, First edn). Unani Qasab, Tabaashir (Bamboo- manna). Siddha/Tamil Moongil Moongilup- pu, (Bambo-manna.) Action Leaf bud and young shoots���used in dysmenorrhoea externally in ulcerations. Leaf���em- menagogue, antileprotic, febrifuge, bechic used in haemoptysis. Stem and leaf���blood purifier (used in leucoderma and inflammatory conditions). Root���poisonous. Burnt root is applied to ringworm, bleeding gums, painful joints. Bark���used for eruptions. Leaf and Bamboo-manna���emmena- gogue. Bamboo-manna���pectoral, expectorant, carminative, cooling, aphrodisiac, tonic (used in debili- tating diseases, urinary infections, chest diseases, cough, asthma). The plant gave cyanogenic glu- coside���taxiphyllin. Bamboo-manna contains silicious crystalline substan- ces. The starch obtained from Maran- ta arundinacea Linn., Marantaceae, is also used as Bamboo-manna (known as Koovai Kizhangu, Kookaineer and Araroottu Kizangu in Siddha medi- cine). Dosage Manna������������ g (CCRAS.) Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Family Brassicaceae, Cruciferae. Habitat Subalpine and temperate Himalayas, at altitudes of ���,������������ ���,��������� m. English Bitter Cress, Hedge Mustard, Yellow Rocket, Winter Cress. Folk Cress. Action Diuretic, anthelmintic, stomachic, antiscorbutic, (leaves are rich in vitamin C ��������� mg/��������� g). Pulverised herb is used as an agent for stimulating spermatogenesis. The roots contain sinigrin seeds contain a glucoside, glucobarbarin, and myrosin. The protein and phosphorus con- tents of the plant decrease with the maturity, whereas the calcium con- tents increase (tender stems are eaten as a salad). The leaves and buds are a rich source of provitamin A (beta- carotene). Barleria buxifolia Linn. Family Acanthaceae. Habitat Peninsular India from Maharashtra southwards up to an altitude of ���,��������� m. An ornamental hedge plant in gardens. Ayurvedic Sahachara (purple, blue, rose or white-flowered var.) Folk Jhinti.