The ‘Black Sheep Effect’: Social Categorization, Rejection of Ingroup Deviates, and Perception of Group Variability
In this chapter we review evidence on the ‘black sheep effect’: subjects judge\nlikable ingroup members more positively than similar outgroup members, while\njudging unlikable ingroup members more negatively than similar outgroup\nmembers. We attempt to relate these findings to traditional research on group\nuniformity (Cartwright & Zander, 1968; Festinger, 1950), and to more recent\nresearch on social identity (Hogg & Abrams, 1988), and outgroup homogeneity\n(Park, Judd, & Ryan, 1991). The general idea is that the black sheep effect\noperates to preserve a positive social identity. It is an outcome of subjective\nrepresentations of a normative pressure towards ingroup uniformity.