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The contribution of natural and anthropogenic very short-lived species to stratospheric bromine

by R. Hossaini, M. P. Chipperfield, W. Feng, T. J. Breider, E. Atlas, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, F. Moore, J. Elkins show all authors
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ()

Abstract

We have used a global three-dimensional chemical transport model to\nquantify the impact of the very short-lived substances (VSLS) CHBr3,\nCH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2, CH2BrCl and C2H5-Br on the bromine budget\nof the stratosphere. Atmospheric observations of these gases allow\nconstraints on surface mixing ratios that, when incorporated into\nour model, contribute ~4.9–5.2 parts per trillion (ppt) of inorganic\nbromine (Bry) to the stratosphere. Of this total, ~76 % comes from\nnaturally-emitted CHBr3 and CH2Br2. The remaining species individually\ncontribute modest amounts. However, their accumulated total accounts\nfor up to ~1.2 ppt of the supply and thus should not be ignored.\nWe have compared modelled tropical profiles of a range of VSLS with\nobservations from the recent 2009 NSF HIPPO-1 aircraft campaign.\nModelled profiles agree reasonably well with observations from the\nsurface to the lower tropical tropopause layer. \n\n\nWe have also considered the poorly studied anthropogenic VSLS, C2H5Br,\nCH2BrCH2Br, n-C3H7Br and i-C3H7Br. We find the local atmospheric\nlifetime of these species in the tropical tropopause layer are ~183,\n603, 39 and 49 days, respectively. These species, particularly C2H5Br\nand CH2BrCH2Br, would thus be important carriers of bromine to the\nstratosphere if emissions were to increase substantially. Our model\nshows ~70–73 % and ~80–85 % of bromine from these species in the\ntropical boundary layer can reach the lower stratosphere.

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