Development of an Instrument to M...
This article was downloaded by: [Yuan Ze University] On: 15 November 2011, At: 19:26 Publisher: Taylor & Francis Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK International Journal of Human- Computer Interaction Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/hihc20 Development of an Instrument to Measure Enjoyment of Computer Game Play Xiaowen Fang a , Susy Chan a , Jacek Brzezinski a & Chitra Nair a a DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois Available online: 12 Aug 2010 To cite this article: Xiaowen Fang, Susy Chan, Jacek Brzezinski & Chitra Nair (2010): Development of an Instrument to Measure Enjoyment of Computer Game Play, International Journal of Human- Computer Interaction, 26:9, 868-886 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2010.496337 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
INTL. JOURNAL OF HUMAN���COMPUTER INTERACTION, 26(9), 868���886, 2010 Copyright �� Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1044-7318 print / 1532-7590 online DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2010.496337 Development of an Instrument to Measure Enjoyment of Computer Game Play Xiaowen Fang, Susy Chan, Jacek Brzezinski, and Chitra Nair DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois This article reports on the development of an instrument designed to measure the enjoyment of computer game play. Despite the enormous technological progress in the field of computer games, enjoyment of computer game play is still not a well- defined construct. Based on Nabi and Krcmar���s (2004) tripartite model of media enjoyment, a survey questionnaire was developed to measure computer game play- ers��� affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions. Expert consultation, exploratory, and confirmatory card sorting sessions were used to refine the instrument. A sur- vey of computer game players was subsequently conducted to test the instrument. Reliabilities and construct validities were analyzed. Findings and their implications were discussed. 1. INTRODUCTION Computer-controlled games (hereafter referred to as computer games in this article) are becoming a prominent form of entertainment. In 2008, more than 260 million computer games were sold in the United States alone, and 65% of American households play these computer games (Entertainment Software Association, 2008). The average game player is 35 years old and has been playing games for 13 years. Forty percent of all game players are women (Entertainment Software Association, 2008). In addition to entertainment, com- puter games are increasingly used for therapeutic, educational, and work-related purposes (Griffiths, 2003 Robillard, Bouchard, Fournier, & Renaud, 2003). A recent study by Altinkemer and Shen (2008) also points to the intensified competition among leading companies in accelerating adoption of computer games. Player enjoyment is central to playing computer games (Peter, Tilo, & Christoph, 2003 Sweetser & Wyeth, 2005 Vorderer & Bryant, 2006). Although computer game play has become a prominent form of entertainment, there exist few empirical studies on game enjoyment during game play (Karolien, Yvonne, & Correspondence should be addressed to Xiaowen Fang, School of Computing, College of Computing and Digital Media, DePaul University, 243 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, IL 60604. E-mail: email@example.com
Measuring Computer Game Play Enjoyment 869 Wijnand, 2007 Rajava, Sarri, Laarni, Kallinen, & Salminen, 2005). Prior research on computer games in behavioral science has focused primarily on the nega- tive impacts of playing video games, such as addiction and violence (Anderson & Bushman, 2001 Anderson & Dill, 2000 Uhlmann & Swanson, 2004). A few information systems (IS) studies have investigated factors contributing to user acceptance of computer games. Hsu and Lu (2004) incorporated the technology acceptance model (Davis, 1989) with social influence and flow experience when studying user acceptance of online games. They find that social norms, attitude, and flow experience explain about 80% of user acceptance of game playing. Choi and Kim (2004) suggested that people continue to play online games if they have optimal experiences while playing the games. A comprehensive framework for examining the interaction between player characteristics and game features is needed for a better understanding of the pro- cess of game play and its impacts on players. As a form of entertainment, the construct of enjoyment of computer game play is central to such a framework. However, the extant measurements of enjoyment tend to be too simplistic, using only a few items (e.g., Ryan, Rigby, & Przybylski, 2006), or lacking construct valid- ity and reliability of measures. The absence of a validated instrument has hindered large-scale IS research on computer game play. The aim of our research is to develop an instrument to measure various aspects of players��� enjoyment of computer game play. To make this instrument applicable to a broad range of games such as traditional video games and games played on a computer, we define computer game play as play of computer-controlled games. The following sections discuss the underlying framework, scale development, and results of the initial testing of an instrument for measuring enjoyment in computer game play. 2. BACKGROUND LITERATURE An examination of prior research in allied fields of computer game play, enjoy- ment, and affect points to possible theories of game play enjoyment. This section provides a review of studies in video game preference, media enjoyment theories, computer game play, and affect. 2.1. Video Game Preference Gratification is a form of enjoyment. Research on video game uses and gratifica- tions has focused on the main appeal of video games. Selnow (1984) published the first such study based on a survey of 244 10- to 24-year-olds and isolated five gratification factors that attract players to arcade video game play. These factors show that a video game (a) is preferable to human companions, (b) teaches about people, (c) provides companionship, (d) provides activity/action, and (e) provides solitude/escape. Another study of video games (Wigand, Borstelmann, & Boster, 1985) reveals a similar set of gratifications for arcade game use: excitement, sat- isfaction, and tension reduction. A survey conducted by Phillips, Rolls, Rouse, and Griffiths (1995) suggests several uses of video game play, including ���to pass