Dream-recall frequency and waking imagery.
The purpose was to investigate the relationship between dream-recall frequency and waking imagery, so 323 undergraduates completed four imagery tests: (1) Sheehan's modified version of Betts' Questionnaire on Mental Imagery, (2) Marks' Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, (3) the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control, (4) Richardson's Verbalizer Visualizer Questionnaire, and a dream-recall questionnaire which contained a question about dream-recall frequency. When scores on the four imagery tests and the seven sensory subscales of the Questionnaire on Mental Imagery were compared for the n = 82 frequent and n = 80 infrequent dream recallers, higher recall was associated with more vivid voluntary images and more frequent use of visual imagery; however, control visual imagery as measured by the Test of Visual Imagery Control was not associated with dream-recall frequency. Scores for frequent use of visual imagery on dream-recall frequency might have been due to the two items of the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire which asked about dream experiences. The results for the seven sensory subscales of the Betts' questionnaire indicated that the frequency of dream recall was significantly related to scores on visual, cutaneous, and organic but not on auditory, gustatory, kinaesthetic, and olfactory subscales. No significant differences were found between males and females. Present findings indicated that forming vivid mental images in the waking state is related to frequency of dream recall and support Cohen's salience theory of dream recall, i.e., that evoking vivid waking mental images voluntarily may play an important role in retrieving dream images or saving them during wakefulness. All sensory modalities should be considered in study of dream recall.