Eco-toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.
Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated soil samples were collected from Shengli Oilfield of China. Toxicity analysis was carried out based on earthworm acute toxicity, plant growth experiment and luminescent bacteria test. The soil was contaminated by-petroleum hydrogcarbons with TPH concentration of 10.57%. With lethal and sub-lethal rate as endpoint, earthworm test showed that the LD50 (lethal dose 50%) values in 4 and 7 days were 1.45% and 1.37% respectively, and the inhibition rate of earthworm body weight increased with higher oil concentration. TPH pollution in the soil inhibited seed germination in both wheat and maize experiment when the concentration of petroleum was higher than 0.1%. The EC50 (effective concentration 50%) for germination is 3.04% and 2.86% in maize and wheat, respectively. While lower value of EC50 for root elongation was to be 1.11% and 1.64% in maize and wheat, respectively, suggesting higher sensitivity of root elongation on petroleum contamination in the soil. The EC50 value in luminescent bacteria test was 0.47% for petroleum in the contaminated soil. From the experiment result, it was concluded that TPH content of 1.5% is considered to be a critical value for plant growth and living of earthworm and 0.5% will affect the activity of luminescent bacteria.