Sign up & Download
Sign in

Electrodeposition of copper: The nucleation mechanisms

by Darko Grujicic, Batric Pesic
Electrochimica Acta ()

Abstract

The nucleation mechanisms of copper during electrodeposition of thin films from sulfate solutions were studied by utilizing the electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Near atomically smooth glassy carbon was used as the deposition substrate (electrode). The copper nucleation mechanisms were examined as a function of solution pH, copper concentration, deposition potential, temperature, and background electrolyte. It was found that with pH and copper concentration increase, the nuclei size increased, while the nuclei population density decreased. An increase of deposition potential produced smaller nuclei and higher nuclei population density. Temperature affected the morphology of deposited copper. The presence of background electrolyte also influenced the morphology and population density of copper nuclei. The nucleation mechanisms were examined by fitting the experimental data (chronoamperometry) into the Scharifker-Hills nucleation models. It was found that at pH 1, in the absence of background electrolyte, copper nucleation was instantaneous. At pH 2 and 3, the mechanism was inconclusive. In the presence of background electrolyte, the mechanism at pH 1 and 2 was mixed, while at pH 3, the mechanism was progressive nucleation. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cite this document (BETA)

Readership Statistics

106 Readers on Mendeley
by Discipline
 
 
 
by Academic Status
 
38% Ph.D. Student
 
24% Student (Master)
 
8% Post Doc
by Country
 
3% United States
 
2% United Kingdom
 
1% India

Sign up today - FREE

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research. Learn more

  • All your research in one place
  • Add and import papers easily
  • Access it anywhere, anytime

Start using Mendeley in seconds!

Already have an account? Sign in