Sign up & Download
Sign in

Hard and soft projects: A framework for analysis

by Lynn Crawford, Julien Pollack
International Journal of Project Management ()

Abstract

This paper provides clarification on the use of the terms 'hard' and 'soft' in the context of project and program management, by exploring what it means for a project to be hard or soft. This paper draws on the authors' practice based research into large organisational change programs in a variety of contexts, and the literature on project management, systems thinking and evaluation. A framework for exploring the hardness and softness of project process and outcomes is provided. It acts as an aid to structured discussion and informed decision making about the application of methods for managing projects and programs and the appropriate methods for evaluating their success. This framework is designed to aid in the transfer of lessons learned to practice by offering a common point of comparison between projects, and has potential for use as a predictive aid to resourcing. Its use is demonstrated in three cases. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd and IPMA. All rights reserved.

Cite this document (BETA)

Readership Statistics

91 Readers on Mendeley
by Discipline
 
 
 
by Academic Status
 
37% Student (Master)
 
25% Ph.D. Student
 
13% Student (Postgraduate)
by Country
 
4% United States
 
3% Brazil
 
2% United Kingdom

Sign up today - FREE

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research. Learn more

  • All your research in one place
  • Add and import papers easily
  • Access it anywhere, anytime

Start using Mendeley in seconds!

Already have an account? Sign in