Mirizzi syndrome: history, present and future development.
BACKGROUND: Mirizzi syndrome was reported in 0.3-3% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy. The distortion of anatomy and the presence of cholecystocholedochal fistula increase the risk of bile duct injury during cholecystectomy. METHODS: A Medline search was undertaken to identify articles that were published from 1974 to 2004. Additional papers were identified by a manual search of the references from the key articles. RESULTS: A preoperative diagnosis was made in 8-62.5% of cases. Open surgical treatment gave good short-term and long-term results. There was a lack of good data in laparoscopic treatment. Conversion to open surgery rates was high, and bile duct injury rate varied from 0 to 22.2%. CONCLUSION: A high index of clinical suspicion is required to make a preoperative or intraoperative diagnosis, which leads to good surgical planning to treat the condition. Open surgery is the gold standard. Mirizzi syndrome should still be considered as a contraindication for laparoscopic surgery.