The MIT encyclopedia of the cogni...
THE MIT ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE COGNITIVE SCIENCES EDITED BY ROBERT A. WILSON AND FRANK C. KEIL PHILOSOPHY PSYCHOLOGY COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE LINGUISTICS AND LANGUAGE CULTURE, COGNITION, AND EVOLUTION NEUROSCIENCES
The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences
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The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences EDITED BY Robert A. Wilson and Frank C. Keil A Bradford Book The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England
��� 1999 Massachusetts Institute of Technology All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The MIT encyclopedia of the cognitive sciences / edited by Robert A. Wilson, Frank C. Keil. p. cm. ���A Bradford book.��� Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-262-73124-X (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Cognitive science���Encyclopedias I. Wilson, Robert A. (Robert Andrew) II. Keil, Frank C., 1952��� . BF311.M556 1999 153���.03���dc21 99-11115 CIP
To the memory of Henry Bradford Stanton (a.k.a ���Harry the hat���), 1921���1997, and to his wife Betty upon her retirement, after twenty-one years with Bradford Books. Harry and Betty were its cofounders and a major force in their own right in the flowering and cross-fertilization of the interdisciplinary cognitive sciences.
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Contents List of Entries ix Preface xiii Philosophy, Robert A. Wilson xv Psychology, Keith J. Holyoak xxxix Neurosciences, Thomas D. Albright and Helen J. Neville li Computational Intelligence, Michael I. Jordan and Stuart Russell lxxiii Linguistics and Language, Gennaro Chierchia xci Culture, Cognition, and Evolution, Dan Sperber and Lawrence Hirschfeld cxi The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences 1 List of Contributors 901 Name Index 913 Subject Index 933
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List of Entries Acquisition, Formal Theories of 1 Adaptation and Adaptationism 3 Affordances 4 Aging and Cognition 6 Aging, Memory, and the Brain 7 AI and Education 9 Algorithm 11 Altruism 12 Ambiguity 14 Amygdala, Primate 15 Analogy 17 Anaphora 20 Animal Communication 22 Animal Navigation 24 Animal Navigation, Neural Networks 26 Animism 28 Anomalous Monism 30 Aphasia 31 Articulation 33 Artifacts and Civilization 35 Artificial Life 37 Attention 39 Attention in the Animal Brain 41 Attention in the Human Brain 43 Attribution Theory 46 Audition 48 Auditory Attention 50 Auditory Physiology 52 Auditory Plasticity 56 Autism 58 Automata 60 Automaticity 63 Autonomy of Psychology 64 Bartlett, Frederic Charles 66 Basal Ganglia 67 Bayesian Learning 70 Bayesian Networks 72 Behavior-Based Robotics 74 Behaviorism 77 Bilingualism and the Brain 80 Binding by Neural Synchrony 81 Binding Problem 85 Binding Theory 86 Blindsight 88 Bloomfield, Leonard 90 Boas, Franz 91 Bounded Rationality 92 Brentano, Franz 94 Broadbent, Donald E. 95 Broca, Paul 97 Cajal, Santiago Ram��n y 98 Case-Based Reasoning and Analogy 99 Categorial Grammar 101 Categorization 104 Causal Reasoning 106 Causation 108 Cerebellum 110 Cerebral Cortex 111 Chess, Psychology of 113 Chinese Room Argument 115 Church-Turing Thesis 116 Codeswitching 118 Cognitive Anthropology 120 Cognitive Archaeology 122 Cognitive Architecture 124 Cognitive Artifacts 126 Cognitive Development 128 Cognitive Ergonomics 130 Cognitive Ethology 132 Cognitive Linguistics 134 Cognitive Maps 135 Cognitive Modeling, Connectionist 137 Cognitive Modeling, Symbolic 141 Color Categorization 143 Color, Neurophysiology of 145 Color Vision 147 Columns and Modules 148 Comparative Psychology 150 Compositionality 152 Computation 153 Computation and the Brain 155 Computational Complexity 158 Computational Learning Theory 159 Computational Lexicons 160 Computational Linguistics 162 Computational Neuroanatomy 164 Computational Neuroscience 166 Computational Psycholinguistics 168 Computational Theory Of Mind 170 Computational Vision 172 Computing in Single Neurons 174 Concepts 176 Conceptual Change 179 Conditioning 182 Conditioning and the Brain 184 Connectionism, Philosophical Issues 186 Connectionist Approaches to Language 188 Consciousness 190 Consciousness, Neurobiology of 193 Constraint Satisfaction 195 Context and Point of View 198 Control Theory 199 Cooperation and Competition 201 Cortical Localization, History of 203 Creativity 205 Creoles 206 Cultural Consensus Theory 208 Cultural Evolution 209 Cultural Psychology 211 Cultural Relativism 213 Cultural Symbolism 216 Cultural Variation 217
x List of Entries Darwin, Charles 218 Decision Making 220 Decision Trees 223 Deductive Reasoning 225 Depth Perception 227 Descartes, Ren�� 229 Discourse 231 Dissonance 233 Distinctive Features 234 Distributed vs. Local Representation 236 Domain-Specificity 238 Dominance in Animal Social Groups 240 Dreaming 242 Dynamic Approaches to Cognition 244 Dynamic Programming 246 Dynamic Semantics 247 Dyslexia 249 Ebbinghaus, Hermann 251 Echolocation 253 Ecological Psychology 255 Ecological Validity 257 Economics and Cognitive Science 259 Education 261 Electrophysiology, Electric and Magnetic Evoked Fields 262 Eliminative Materialism 265 Emergentism 267 Emotion and the Animal Brain 269 Emotion and the Human Brain 271 Emotions 273 Epiphenomenalism 275 Episodic vs. Semantic Memory 278 Epistemology and Cognition 280 Essentialism 282 Ethics and Evolution 284 Ethnopsychology 286 Ethology 288 Evolution 290 Evolution of Language 292 Evolutionary Computation 293 Evolutionary Psychology 295 Expertise 298 Explanation 300 Explanation-Based Learning 301 Explanatory Gap 304 Extensionality, Thesis of 305 Eye Movements and Visual Attention 306 Face Recognition 309 Feature Detectors 311 Figurative Language 314 Focus 315 Folk Biology 317 Folk Psychology 319 Formal Grammars 320 Formal Systems, Properties of 322 Frame-Based Systems 324 Frame Problem 326 Frege, Gottlob 327 Freud, Sigmund 328 Functional Decomposition 329 Functional Role Semantics 331 Functionalism 332 Fuzzy Logic 335 Game-Playing Systems 336 Game Theory 338 Generative Grammar 340 Geschwind, Norman 343 Gestalt Perception 244 Gestalt Psychology 346 Gibson, James Jerome 349 G��del���s Theorems 351 Golgi, Camillo 352 Grammar, Neural Basis of 354 Grammatical Relations 355 Greedy Local Search 357 Grice, H. Paul 359 Haptic Perception 360 Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar 362 Head Movement 364 Hebb, Donald O. 366 Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von 367 Hemispheric Specialization 369 Heuristic Search 372 Hidden Markov Models 373 High-Level Vision 374 Hippocampus 377 Human-Computer Interaction 379 Human Navigation 380 Human Universals 382 Hume, David 384 Illusions 385 Imagery 387 Imitation 389 Implicature 391 Implicit vs. Explicit Memory 394 Indexicals and Demonstratives 395 Individualism 397 Induction 399 Inductive Logic Programming 400 Infant Cognition 402 Information Theory 404 Informational Semantics 406 Innateness of Language 408 Intelligence 409 Intelligent Agent Architecture 411 Intentional Stance 412 Intentionality 413 Intersubjectivity 415 Introspection 419 Jakobson, Roman 421 James, William 422 Judgment Heuristics 423 Justification 425 Kant, Immanuel 427 Knowledge Acquisition 428 Knowledge-Based Systems 430 Knowledge Representation 432 Language Acquisition 434 Language and Communication 438 Language and Culture 441 Language and Gender 442 Language and Thought 444
List of Entries xi Language Impairment, Developmental 446 Language, Neural Basis of 448 Language of Thought 451 Language Production 453 Language Variation and Change 456 Lashley, Karl S. 458 Learning 460 Learning Systems 461 L��vi-Strauss, Claude 463 Lexical Functional Grammar 464 Lexicon 467 Lexicon, Neural Basis 469 Lightness Perception 471 Limbic System 472 Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis 475 Linguistic Universals and Universal Grammar 476 Linguistics, Philosophical Issues 478 Literacy 481 Logic 482 Logic Programming 484 Logical Form in Linguistics 486 Logical Form, Origins of 488 Logical Omniscience, Problem of 489 Logical Reasoning Systems 491 Long-Term Potentiation 492 Luria, Alexander Romanovich 494 Machiavellian Intelligence Hypothesis 495 Machine Learning 497 Machine Translation 498 Machine Vision 501 Magic and Superstition 503 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 505 Malinowski, Bronislaw 507 Manipulation and Grasping 508 Marr, David 511 McCulloch, Warren S. 512 Meaning 513 Memory 514 Memory, Animal Studies 517 Memory, Human Neuropsychology 520 Memory Storage, Modulation of 522 Mental Causation 524 Mental Models 525 Mental Representation 527 Mental Retardation 529 Mental Rotation 531 Metacognition 533 Metaphor 535 Metaphor and Culture 537 Metareasoning 539 Metarepresentation 541 Meter and Poetry 543 Mid-Level Vision 545 Mind-Body Problem 546 Minimalism 548 Minimum Description Length 550 Mobile Robots 551 Modal Logic 554 Modeling Neuropsychological Deficits 555 Modularity and Language 557 Modularity of Mind 558 Moral Psychology 561 Morphology 562 Motion, Perception of 564 Motivation 566 Motivation and Culture 568 Motor Control 570 Motor Learning 571 Multiagent Systems 573 Multisensory Integration 574 Naive Mathematics 575 Naive Physics 577 Naive Sociology 579 Narrow Content 581 Nativism 583 Nativism, History of 586 Natural Kinds 588 Natural Language Generation 589 Natural Language Processing 592 Neural Development 594 Neural Networks 597 Neural Plasticity 598 Neuroendocrinology 601 Neuron 603 Neurotransmitters 605 Newell, Allen 607 Nonmonotonic Logics 608 Numeracy and Culture 611 Object Recognition, Animal Studies 613 Object Recognition, Human Neuropsychology 615 Oculomotor Control 618 Optimality Theory 620 Pain 622 Parameter-Setting Approaches to Acquisition, Creolization, and Diachrony 624 Parsimony and Simplicity 627 Pattern Recognition and Feed-Forward Networks 629 Penfield, Wilder 631 Perceptual Development 632 Phantom Limb 635 Phonetics 636 Phonological Rules and Processes 637 Phonology 639 Phonology, Acquisition of 641 Phonology, Neural Basis of 643 Physicalism 645 Piaget, Jean 647 Pictorial Art and Vision 648 Pitts, Walter 651 Planning 652 Polysynthetic Languages 654 Positron Emission Tomography 656 Possible Worlds Semantics 659 Poverty of the Stimulus Arguments 660 Pragmatics 661 Presupposition 664 Primate Cognition 666 Primate Language 669 Probabilistic Reasoning 671 Probability, Foundations of 673 Problem Solving 674 Production Systems 676
xii List of Entries Propositional Attitudes 678 Prosody and Intonation 679 Prosody and Intonation, Processing Issues 682 Psychoanalysis, Contemporary Views 683 Psychoanalysis, History of 685 Psycholinguistics 688 Psychological Laws 690 Psychophysics 691 Qualia 693 Quantifiers 694 Radical Interpretation 696 Rational Agency 698 Rational Choice Theory 699 Rational Decision Making 701 Rationalism vs. Empiricism 703 Reading 705 Realism and Anti-Realism 707 Recurrent Networks 709 Reductionism 712 Reference, Theories of 714 Reinforcement Learning 715 Relational Grammar 717 Relevance and Relevance Theory 719 Religious Ideas and Practices 720 Retina 722 Robotics and Learning 723 Rules and Representations 724 Sapir, Edward 726 Saussure, Ferdinand de 728 Schemata 729 Scientific Thinking and Its Development 730 Self 733 Self-Knowledge 735 Self-Organizing Systems 737 Semantics 739 Semantics, Acquisition of 742 Semiotics and Cognition 744 Sensations 745 Sense and Reference 746 Sentence Processing 748 Sexual Attraction, Evolutionary Psychology of 751 Shape Perception 753 Sign Language and the Brain 756 Sign Languages 758 Signal Detection Theory 760 Similarity 763 Simulation vs. Theory-Theory 765 Single-Neuron Recording 766 Situated Cognition and Learning 767 Situatedness/Embeddedness 769 Situation Calculus 777 Sleep 772 Smell 775 Social Cognition 777 Social Cognition in Animals 778 Social Play Behavior 780 Sociobiology 783 Spatial Perception 784 Speech Perception 787 Speech Recognition in Machines 790 Speech Synthesis 792 Sperry, Roger Wolcott 794 Spoken Word Recognition 796 Statistical Learning Theory 798 Statistical Techniques in Natural Language Processing 801 Stereo and Motion Perception 802 Stereotyping 804 Stress 806 Stress, Linguistic 808 Structure from Visual Information Sources 810 Supervenience 812 Supervised Learning in Multilayer Neural Networks 814 Surface Perception 816 Syntax 818 Syntax, Acquisition of 820 Syntax-Semantics Interface 824 Taste 826 Technology and Human Evolution 828 Temporal Reasoning 829 Tense and Aspect 831 Teuber, Hans-Lukas 832 Texture 833 Thalamus 835 Thematic Roles 837 Theory of Mind 838 Time in the Mind 841 Tone 843 Top-Down Processing in Vision 844 Transparency 845 Turing, Alan Mathison 847 Tversky, Amos 849 Twin Earth 850 Typology 852 Uncertainty 853 Unity of Science 856 Unsupervised Learning 857 Utility Theory 859 Vagueness 861 Vision and Learning 863 Visual Anatomy and Physiology 864 Visual Cortex, Cell Types and Connections in 867 Visual Neglect 869 Visual Object Recognition, AI 871 Visual Processing Streams 873 Visual Word Recognition 875 Von Neumann, John 876 Vygotsky, Lev Semenovich 878 Walking and Running Machines 879 Wh-Movement 882 What-It���s-Like 883 Wiener, Norbert 884 Word Meaning, Acquisition of 886 Working Memory 888 Working Memory, Neural Basis of 890 Writing Systems 894 Wundt, Wilhelm 896 X-Bar Theory 898
Preface The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (MITECS to its friends) has been four years in the making from conception to publication. It consists of 471 concise articles, nearly all of which include useful lists of references and further readings, pre- ceded by six longer introductory essays written by the volume���s advisory editors. We see MITECS as being of use to students and scholars across the various disciplines that contribute to the cognitive sciences, including psychology, neuroscience, linguis- tics, philosophy, anthropology and the social sciences more generally, evolutionary biology, education, computer science, artificial intelligence, and ethology. Although we prefer to let the volume speak largely for itself, it may help to provide some brief details about the aims and development of the project. One of the chief motivations for this undertaking was the sense that, despite a number of excellent works that overlapped with the ambit of cognitive science as it was traditionally con- ceived, there was no single work that adequately represented the full range of con- cepts, methods, and results derived and deployed in cognitive science over the last twenty-five years. Second, each of the various cognitive sciences differs in its focus and orientation in addition, these have changed over time and will continue to do so in the future. We see MITECS as aiming to represent the scope of this diversity, and as conveying a sense of both the history and future of the cognitive sciences. Finally, we wanted, through discussions with authors and as a result of editorial review, to highlight links across the various cognitive sciences so that readers from one discipline might gain a greater insight into relevant work in other fields. MITECS represents far more than an alphabetic list of topics in the cognitive sciences it cap- tures a good deal of the structure of the whole enterprise at this point in time, the ways in which ideas are linked together across topics and disciplines, as well as the ways in which authors from very different disciplines converge and diverge in their approaches to very similar topics. As one looks through the encyclopedia as a whole, one takes a journey through a rich and multidimensional landscape of interconnected ideas. Categorization is rarely just that, especially in the sciences. Ideas and patterns are related to one another, and the grounds for categorizations are often embedded in complex theoretical and empirical patterns. MITECS illustrates the richness and intri- cacy of this process and the immense value of cognitive science approaches to many questions about the mind. All three of the motivations for MITECS were instrumental in the internal organiza- tion of the project. The core of MITECS is the 471 articles themselves, which were assigned to one of six fields that constitute the foundation of the cognitive sciences. One or two advisory editors oversaw the articles in each of these fields and contributed the introductory essays. The fields and the corresponding advisory editors are Philosophy (Robert A. Wilson) Psychology (Keith J. Holyoak) Neurosciences (Thomas D. Albright and Helen J. Neville) Computational Intelligence (Michael I. Jordan and Stuart Russell) Linguistics and Language (Gennaro Chierchia) Culture, Cognition, and Evolution (Dan Sperber and Lawrence Hirschfeld) These editors advised us regarding both the topics and authors for the articles and assisted in overseeing the review process for each. Considered collectively, the articles represent much of the diversity to be found in the corresponding fields and indicate much of what has been, is, and might be of value for those thinking about cognition from one or another interdisciplinary perspective. Each introduction has two broad goals. The first is to provide a road map through MITECS to the articles in the corresponding section. Because of the arbitrariness of
xiv Preface assigning some articles to one section rather than another, and because of the interdis- ciplinary vision guiding the volume, the introductions mention not only the articles in the corresponding section but also others from overlapping fields. The second goal is to provide a perspective on the nature of the corresponding discipline or disciplines, particularly with respect to the cognitive sciences. Each introduction should stand as a useful overview of the field it represents. We also made it clear to the editors that their introductions did not have to be completely neutral and could clearly express their own unique perspectives. The result is a vibrant and engaging series of essays. We have been fortunate in being able to enlist many of the world���s leading authori- ties as authors of the articles. Our directions to contributors were to write articles that are both representative of their topic and accessible to advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the field. The review process involved assigning two reviewers to each article, one an expert from within the same field, the other an outsider from another field represented in MITECS nearly all reviewers were themselves contribu- tors to MITECS. In addition, every article was read by at least one of the general edi- tors. Articles that did not seem quite right to either or both of us or to our reviewers were sometimes referred to the advisory editors. One might think that with such short articles (most being between 1,000 and 1,500 words in length), the multiple levels of review were unnecessary, but the selectivity that this brevity necessitated made such a review process all the more worthwhile. Relatedly, as more than one contributor noted in explaining his own tardiness: ���This article would have been written sooner if it hadn���t been so short!���. Of course the content of the articles will be the chief source of their value to the reader, but given the imposed conciseness, an important part of their value is the guide that their references and further readings provide to the relevant literature. In addition, each article contains cross-references, indicated in SMALL CAPITALS, to related articles and a short list of ���see also��� cross-references at the end of the article. Responsibility for these cross-references lies ultimately with one of us (RAW), though we are thankful to those authors who took the time to suggest cross-references for their own articles. We envisioned that many scholars would use MITECS as a frequent, perhaps even daily, tool in their research and have designed the references, readings, and cross-ref- erences with that use in mind. The electronic version will allow users to download rel- evant references into their bibliography databases along with considerable cross- classification information to aid future searches. Both of us are surprised at the extent to which we have already come to rely on drafts of articles in MITECS for these pur- poses in our own scholarly pursuits. In the long list of people to thank, we begin with the contributors themselves, from whom we have learned much, both from their articles and their reviews of the articles of others, and to whom readers owe their first debt. Without the expertise of the advi- sory editors there is little chance that we would have arrived at a comprehensive range of topics or managed to identify and recruit many of the authors who have contributed to MITECS. And without their willingness to take on the chore of responding to our whims and fancies over a three-year period, and to write the section introductions, MITECS would have fallen short of its goals. Thanks Tom, Gennaro, Larry, Keith, Mike, Helen, Stuart, and Dan. At The MIT Press, we thank Amy Brand for her leader- ship and persistence, her able assistants Ed Sprague and Ben Bruening for their tech- know-how and hard work, and Sandra Minkkinen for editorial oversight of the pro- cess. Rob Wilson thanks his coterie of research assistants: Patricia Ambrose and Peter Piegaze while he was at Queen���s University and Aaron Sklar, Keith Krueger, and Peter Asaro since he has been at the University of Illinois. His work on MITECS was supported, in part, by SSHRC Individual Three-Year Grant #410-96-0497, and a UIUC Campus Research Board Grant. Frank Keil thanks Cornell University for inter- nal funds that were used to help support this project.