Raman effect in icosahedral boron-rich solids
We present Raman spectra of numerous icosahedral boron-rich solids having the structure of α-rhombohedral, β-rhombohedral, α-tetragonal, β-tetragonal, YB 66 , orthorhombic or amorphous boron. The spectra were newly measured and, in some cases, compared with reported data and discussed. We emphasize the importance of a high signal-to-noise ratio in the Raman spectra for detecting weak effects evoked by the modification of compounds, accommodation of interstitial atoms and other structural defects. Vibrations of the icosahedra, occurring in all the spectra, are interpreted using the description of modes in α-rhombohedral boron by Beckel et al . The Raman spectrum of boron carbide is largely clarified. Relative intra- and inter-icosahedral bonding forces are estimated for the different structural groups and for vanadium-doped β-rhombohedral boron. The validity of Badger's rule is demonstrated for the force constants of inter-icosahedral B–B bonds, whereas the agreement is less satisfactory for the intra-icosahedral B–B bonds.