Results from the University of Toronto continuous flow diffusion chamber at ICIS 2007: Instrument intercomparison and ice onsets for different aerosol types
The University of Toronto continuous flow diffusion chamber (UT-CFDC) was used to study heterogeneous ice nucleation at the International Workshop on Comparing Ice Nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS 2007) which also represented the 4-th ice nucleation workshop, on 14-28 September 2007. One goal of the workshop was to intercompare different ice nucleationmeasurement techniques using the same aerosol sample source and preparation method. The aerosol samples included four types of desert mineral dust, graphite soot particles, and live and dead bacterial cells (Snomax®). This paper focuses on the UT-CFDC results, with a comparison to techniques of established heritage including the Colorado State CFDC and the AIDA expansion chamber. Good agreement was found between the different instruments with a few specific differences, especially at low temperatures, perhaps due to the variation in how onset of ice formation is defined between the instruments and the different inherent residence times. It was found that when effi- ciency of ice formation is based on the lowest onset relative humidity, Snomax® particles were most efficient followed by the desert dusts and then soot. For all aerosols, deposition mode freezing was only observed for T<45K except for the dead bacteria where freezing occurred below water saturation as warm as 263 K. © 2011 Author(s).