Triangulation in qualitative research: evaluation of completeness and confirmation purposes.
The term triangulation has been applied to research strategies intended to serve two distinct purposes, confirmation and completeness. Many researchers who claim to have used a triangulated approach fail to provide evidence to show that their approach contributed to either confirmation or completeness of the data set. This paper reviews these distinct purposes and describes how triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods was built into a study to achieve them. Analysis of data related to a single construct illustrates how data generated by qualitative and quantitative methods can provide both convergent validity and a broader understanding of one's subject matter.