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Biological Sciences

In this discipline: 3,522,515 papers · 21,170 groups

Discipline summary

Biology is the study of life. It attempts to understand the structure, function, processes and evolution of living organisms and how they relate to their environment. Modern biology covers a wide variety of fields and is highly interdisciplinary, drawing on advances in areas such as computer science, mathematics, psychology. Because biology is such a broad subject, it is subdivided according the level of organization being addressed. At the lowest level, molecular biology studies the component parts of cells: proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. Cellular biology studies the cells themselves, how cells communicate intercellularly and intracellularly, their internal structure and organelles and how they relate to one another in multicellular organisms. The related field of microbiology deals generally with single-celled organisms, while virology handles the "edge case" of viruses. At higher levels of organization, the sub-disciplines are usually named according to the specific system being studied, as in nephrology, neurology, mycology, etc. Ecology generally deals with the highest level of organization, studying entire ecosystems.

Popular papers

  1. Error bars commonly appear in figures in publications, but experimental biologists are often unsure how they should be used and interpreted. In this article we illustrate some basic features of error bars and explain how they can help communicate…
  2. DNA sequence represents a single format onto which a broad range of biological phenomena can be projected for high-throughput data collection. Over the past three years, massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms have become widely available,…
  3. How should ecologists and evolutionary biologists analyze nonnormal data that involve random effects? Nonnormal data such as counts or proportions often defy classical statistical procedures. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) provide a more…
  4. Ten years after the publication of the position paper "The hallmarks of cancer" (Hanahan and Weinberg Cell 100:57-70, 2000), it has become increasingly clear that mutated cells on their way to giving rise to a tumor have also to learn how to thrive…
  5. We report the design, synthesis, and assembly of the 1.08-mega-base pair Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0 genome starting from digitized genome sequence information and its transplantation into a M. capricolum recipient cell to create new M. mycoides…
  6. The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to…

Popular groups

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