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Immunology

In this subdiscipline: 79,449 papers

Discipline summary

Immunology is the study of the defensive response of animals to non-self, tolerance to self, and disease arising from dysfunction in these processes. As such, Immunology is a necessarily broad field at an intersection of biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, developmental biology, evolutionary biology, genetics, microbiology, molecular biology, medicine, neuroscience, and organismal biology.

Popular papers

  1. Error bars commonly appear in figures in publications, but experimental biologists are often unsure how they should be used and interpreted. In this article we illustrate some basic features of error bars and explain how they can help communicate…
  2. CD4+ T cells, upon activation and expansion, develop into different T helper cell subsets with different cytokine profiles and distinct effector functions. Until recently, T cells were divided into Th1 or Th2 cells, depending on the cytokines they…
  3. Heterogeneity of the macrophage lineage has long been recognized and, in part, is a result of the specialization of tissue macrophages in particular microenvironments. Circulating monocytes give rise to mature macrophages and are also heterogeneous…
  4. Ten years after the publication of the position paper "The hallmarks of cancer" (Hanahan and Weinberg Cell 100:57-70, 2000), it has become increasingly clear that mutated cells on their way to giving rise to a tumor have also to learn how to thrive…
  5. Regulatory T (T(Reg)) cells are essential for maintaining peripheral tolerance, preventing autoimmune diseases and limiting chronic inflammatory diseases. However, they also limit beneficial responses by suppressing sterilizing immunity and limiting…
  6. The TLR family senses the molecular signatures of microbial pathogens, and plays a fundamental role in innate immune responses. TLRs signal via a common pathway that leads to the expression of diverse inflammatory genes. In addition, each TLR…
  7. This study surveys Vietnamese refugees attending two psychiatric clinics to determine both the prevalence of panic disorder (PD) as well as panic attack subtypes in those suffering PD. A culturally valid adaptation of the SCID-panic module (the…
  8. Inflammasomes are molecular platforms activated upon cellular infection or stress that trigger the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1?? to engage innate immune defenses. Strong associations between dysregulated…
  9. The innate immune system is a universal and ancient form of host defense against infection. Innate immune recognition relies on a limited number of germline-encoded receptors. These receptors evolved to recognize conserved products of microbial…

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