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Environmental

In this subdiscipline: 2,839 papers

Discipline summary

Developmental

Popular papers

  1. In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim,…
  2. The association between climate change and the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events is now well established. General circulation models of climate change predict that heatwaves will become more frequent and intense, especially in the…
  3. Epidemiological studies typically utilise one or few central monitoring stations as a proxy for personal exposure to particulate matter air pollution. However, recent research indicates that central monitoring sites may not accurately characterize…
  4. BACKGROUND: Because of the ubiquitous nature of phthalates in the environment and the potential for adverse human health effects, an urgent need exists to identify the most important sources and pathways of exposure. OBJECTIVES: Using emissions of…
  5. We review the factors influencing children's exposure to environmental contaminants and the data available to characterize and assess that exposure. Children's activity pattern data requirements are demonstrated in the context of the algorithms used…
  6. To improve estimates of non-dietary ingestion in probabilistic exposure modeling, a meta-analysis of children's object-to-mouth frequency was conducted using data from seven available studies representing 438 participants and approximately 1500 h of…
  7. The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose…
  8. The identification of untranslated regions, introns, and coding regions within an organism remains challenging. We developed a quantitative sequencing-based method called RNA-Seq for mapping transcribed regions, in which complementary DNA fragments…
  9. In modern cochlear implants, much of the information required for recognition of important sounds is conveyed by temporal modulation of the charge per phase in interleaved trains of electrical pulses. In this study, modulation detection thresholds…
  10. Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter…
  11. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly…
  12. Background Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life…
  13. Dunlap and Van Liere's New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale, published in 1978, has become a widely used measure of proenvironmental orientation. This article devlops a revised NEP Scale designed to improve upon the original one in several…

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