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Philosophy

In this discipline: 90,387 papers · 630 groups

Discipline summary

Philosophy is the study of questions that arise from existence, specifically those questions pertaining to knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. The philosophical approach to addressing these queries is both humanistic and technical. Its technical aspects are rooted in the systematic study of subfields like logic and philosophy of science, whereas its more humanistic facets are found in the fields of ethics, aesthetics, and philosophy of the mind. The main areas of study are metaphysics and epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, philosophy of the mind, logic, and aesthetics. The Western tradition is centered on the analytical, academic practices that began in ancient Greece. The distinction of an ‘Eastern’ philosophical hermeneutics is a point of sharp contention in contemporary study. Considered by some to be merely a geographical difference, there are nonetheless differences in how the concept of self has arisen in different cultures. The rules of rationality and systematic logic, however, do not change.

Popular papers

  1. This article describes a theory of the computations underlying the selection of coordinated motion patterns, especially in reaching tasks. The central idea is that when a spatial target is selected as an object to be reached, stored postures are…
  2. Consciousness is what makes the mind-body problem really intractable. Perhaps that is why current discussions of the problem give it little attention or get it obviously wrong. The recent wave of reductionist euphoria has produced several analyses…
  3. Speech analysis and synthesis by linear prediction is based on the assumption that the short-time spectral envelope of speech can be represented by a number of poles. An all-pole representation does not provide an accurate description of speech…
  4. Modern empiricism has been conditioned in large part by two dogmas. One is a belief in some fundamental cleavage between truths which are analytic, or grounded in meanings independently of matters of fact, and truth which are synthetic, or grounded…
  5. This text collects all AustinÄôs published articles plus a new one, ch. 13, hitherto unpublished. The analysis of the ordinary language to clarify philosophical questions is the common element of the 13 papers. Chapters 2 and 4 discuss the nature of…
  6. Challenging and rewarding in equal measure, Phenomenology of Perception is Merleau-Ponty's most famous work. Impressive in both scope and imagination, it uses the example of perception to return the body to the forefront of philosophy for the first…
  7. This engaging and accessible introduction to the philosophy of language provides an important guide to one of the liveliest and most challenging areas of study in philosophy. Interweaving the historical development of the subject with a thematic…
  8. OBJECTIVE: Following two randomized controlled trials that demonstrated reduced mortality and better neurological outcome in cardiac arrest patients, mild therapeutic hypothermia was implemented in many intensive care units. Up to now, no large…
  9. One of the most important philosophical works of our time-a work that has had tremendous influence on philosophy, literature, and psychology, and has literally changed the intellectual map of the modern world.
  10. 'Naming and Necessity' has had a great and increasing influence. It redirected philosophical attention to neglected questions of natural and metaphysical necessity and to the connections between these and theories of naming, and of identity. This…
  11. Objective Compare outcome of dogs that did and did not receive fresh frozen plasma (FFP) for treatment of pancreatitis. Design Retrospective case series between 1995 and 2005. Setting University referral hospital. Animals Seventy-four dogs were…
  12. Where does the mind stop and the rest of the world begin? The question invites two standard replies. Some accept the demarcations of skin and skull, and say that what is outside the body is outside the mind. Others are impressed by arguments…
  13. Gareth Evans, one of the most brilliant philosophers of his generation, died in 1980 at the age of thirty-four. He had been working for many years on a book about reference, but did not complete it before his death. The work was edited for…
  14. It is undeniable that the physical, chemical and biological sciences have provided a great deal of information about the world we live in and about ourselves. I will use the label'physical information'for this kind of information, and also for…
  15. Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) occupies a position of pivotal importance in many domains: philosophy, mathematics, physics, religious polemics and apologetics. In this volume a team of leading scholars presents the full range of Pascal's achievement and…

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