A 0.24nJ/b wireless body-area-network transceiver with scalable double-FSK modulation
Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is an emerging technology that combines health care and consumer electronic applications around the human body. There are 3 PHY schemes discussed in the IEEE 802.15.6 Task Group for WBAN standardization 1: ultra-wide-band (UWB) PHY, narrow-band (NB) PHY, and body channel communication (BCC) PHY. The BCC, which uses the human body as a communication channel based on the near-field coupling mechanism, has advantages over UWB and NB in energy efficiency because it provides low path-loss without the body shadowing effect in low-frequency bands below 150MHz 2&x2013;4. However, the previous body channel transceivers (BCTs) were not optimized for WBAN because only phenomenological circuit models were used for the body channel analysis 5 and were unable to satisfy requirements such as energy efficiency, scalability of QoS, interference mitigation, and coexistence at once.