Addressing ecosystem effects of fishing using marine protected areas
This article is a synthesis of the current literature on the potential of marine protected areas (MPAs) a useful management tool for Limiting the ecosystem effects of fishing, including biological and socio-economic aspects. There is sufficient evidence that fishing may negatively affect ecosystems. Modelling and case studies show that the establishment of MPAs, especially far overexploited populations. can mitigate ecosystem effects of fishing. Although quantitative ecosystem modelling techniques incorporating MPAs are in their infancy, their role in exploring scenarios is considered crucial. Success in implementing MPAs will depend on how well the biological concerns and the socio-economic needs of the fishing community can be reconciled. (C) 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.