Biotemplates in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.
This article recapitulates the scientific advancement towards the greener synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Applications of noble metals have increased throughout human civilization, and the uses for nano-sized particles are even more remarkable. "Green" nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable solvent systems and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. Numerous microorganisms and plant extracts have been applied to synthesize inorganic nanostructures either intracellularly or extracellularly. The use of nanoparticles derived from noble metals has spread to many areas including jewelery, medical fields, electronics, water treatment and sport utilities, thus improving the longevity and comfort in human life. The application of nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for bactericidal agents represents a new paradigm in the design of antibacterial therapeutics. Orientation, size and physical properties of nanoparticles influences the performance and reproducibility of a potential device, thus making the synthesis and assembly of shape- and size-controlled nanocrystals an essential component for any practical application. This need has motivated researchers to explore different synthesis protocols.