Colloid Science of Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts in 2D and 3D Structures. Challenges of Nucleation, Growth, Composition, Particle Shape, Size Control and Their Influence on Activity and Selectivity
Recent breakthroughs in the synthesis of nanosciences have achieved the control of size and shape of nanoparticles that are relevant for catalyst design. In this article, we review advances in the synthesis of nanoparticles, fabrication of two- and three-dimensional model catalyst systems, characterization, and studies of activity and selectivity. The ability to synthesize monodispersed platinum and rhodium nanoparticles 1-10 nm in size permitted us to study the influence of composition, structure, and dynamic properties of monodispersed metal nanoparticles on chemical reactivity and selectivity. We review the importance of the size and shape of nanoparticles to determine reaction selectivity in multi-path reactions. The influence of metal-support interaction has been studied by probing the hot electron flows through the metal-oxide interface in catalytic nanodiodes. Novel designs of nano-particle catalytic systems are also discussed.