Curriculum for Secondary Schools in the Philippines: The Development of Citizenship
The Department of Education in the Philippines has undertaken initiatives to restructure the curriculum for secondary schools as part of its ongoing effort to improve the quality of learning. After a decade of study, the Department produced a new basic education curriculum, as the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum. All public schools in the country were mandated to implement the curriculum at the start of 20022003 school year. Makabayan (nationalistic or patriotic) is one of the learning areas in the Basic Education Curriculum along with English, Filipino, Science andMathematics. Makabayan from First to Fourth Year is designed to develop the personal, social and work special skills of learners especially their interpersonal skills, empathy with other cultures, vocational efficiency, problem-solving, and decision-making in daily life, that is, to develop socio-cultural and politico-economic literacy. This paper describes the context and content of the Makabayan curriculum and the extent to which it develops in learners a sense of citizenship, that is, a healthy personal and national self-concept. To delimit scope, this paper focuses on the study of geography only as one of the components of Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies) in the secondary school Makabayan Curriculum, using the results of a study of third year high school students learning of geographic knowledge and skills as bases of empirical data.