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Effects of space in 2 x 2 games

by C Hauert
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos ()

Abstract

A systematic analysis of the effects of spatial extension on the equilibrium frequency of cooperators and defectors in 2 X 2 games is presented and compared to well mixed populations where spatial extension can be neglected. We demonstrate that often spatial extension is indeed capable of promoting cooperative behavior. This holds in particular for the prisoner's dilemma for a small but important parameter range. For the hawk-dove game, spatial extension may lead to both, increases of the hawk- as well as the dove-strategy. The outcome subtly depends on the parameters as well as on the degree of stochasticity in the different update rules. For rectangular lattices, the general conclusions are rather robust and hold for different neighborhood types i.e. for the von Neumann as well as the Moore neighborhood and, in addition, they appear to be almost independent of the update rule of the lattice. However, increasing stochasticity for the update rules of the players results in equilibrium frequencies more closely related to the mean field description.

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