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Energy Harvesting

by Omar C Onar, Alireza Khaligh
()

Abstract

Increasingdemandfor energy, decreasing conventional fossil-fuel energysources,andenvi- ronmental concerns are driving forces toward renewable energy sources. Energy sources such as oil, coal, and gas are being quickly depleted or have insufficient reserves for future demands. Moreover, they are not environmental friendly due to greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants. Nuclear energy has a great establishment cost along with a number of safety concerns. On the other hand, hydroelectric power plants are inexpensive but have a limited life span and mostly cannot be utilized due to geo-political reasons and seasonal irregularity of available water. Therefore, the contribution from renewable energy sources is increasing. Since the world today is experiencing a great shortage of energy, it should be captured, stored, conditioned, and utilized by alternative techniques. Energy demand will always increase with the increase in technological developments while conventional sources will diminish and environmental concerns will gain increased attention. Energy harvesting, also called energy scavenging, is a concept by which energy is cap- tured, stored, and utilized using various sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Unlike the conventional electric power generation systems, in the renew- able energy harvesting concept, fossil fuels are not used and the generation units can be decentralized. Therefore, the transmission and distribution losses can be significantly reduced. There are many sources for harvesting energy. Solar, wind, ocean, hydro, electro- magnetic, electrostatic, thermal, vibration, and human body motion are renewable sources of energy. Economic, environmental, and geopolitical constraints on global conventional energy resources started forcing the nation to accelerate energy harvesting from renew- able sources. Therefore, advanced technical methods should be developed to increase the efficiency of devices in harvesting energy from various environmentally friendly resources and converting them into electrical energy. These developments have sparked interest in many communities such as science, engineering, and education to develop more energy harvesting applications and new curriculums for renewable energy and energy harvesting topics. This book describes various energy harvesting technologies such as solar, wind, ocean wave, ocean tidal, and ocean thermal energy harvesting along with many different topologies and many types of power electronic interfaces for the utilization and/or grid connection of energy harvesting applications. In addition, some simulation models are developed throughout the book in order to build an insight to system analysis and model- ing. In the book, the concepts and theoretical background are built for energy harvesting applications. Chapter 1 of the book focuses on solar energy harvesting since solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources that has gained increased attention in recent years. Solar energy is plentiful; it has the greatest availability among all the other energy sources. The chapter deals with I−V characteristics of photovoltaic (PV) systems, PV models and equivalent circuits, sun tracking systems, maximum power point tracking systems, shading effects, power electronic interfaces for grid connected and stand-alone PV systems, sizing criteria for applications, and modern solar energy applications such as residential, vehicular, naval, and space applications. Wind energy harvesting techniques are analyzed in Chapter 2.Wind power is a clean way of energy conversion; it is renewable, widely distributed, and plentiful. In addition, it contributes toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, since it can be used as an alternative to fossil-fuel-based power genera- tion. Different types of wind turbines and electrical machines are reviewed throughout this chapter along with various power electronic interfaces. In Chapter 3, various features of the ocean tidal energy harvesting are explained that have great potential, however, are not widely utilized yet. Different energy generation technologies, their optimal operation prin- ciples, and possible utilization techniques are described throughout this chapter. Chapter 4 of the book deals with ocean wave energy harvesting in which the kinetic and potential energy contained in the natural oscillations of ocean waves are converted into electric power. Nearshore and offshore approaches along with required absorber, turbine, and generator types are discussed. Moreover, power electronic interfaces for grid connection scenarios are explained. In the final section of the chapter, commercialized ocean wave energy conversion applications are presented. In Chapter 5, ocean thermal energy con- version, an energy-generating technology taking advantage of the temperature difference between the ocean’s shallow warm water and cold deeper water, is investigated. The chap- ter consists of closed, open, and hybrid-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion systems as well as their required components. In addition, potential resources and multipurpose ocean thermal energy conversion systems are presented in this chapter. This book is recommended as a reference text for courses such as Renewable Energies, Alternative Energy Resources, Energy Harvesting, and many other similar courses. This book is also an in-depth source for engineers, researchers, and managers who are working in energy harvesting, renewable energies, electrical power engineering, power electronics, and related industries. We would like to gratefully acknowledgeYao Da and Haojie Luan for their contributions to Chapters 3, 4, and 5.We would also like to acknowledge the efforts and assistance of the staff of CRC Press–Taylor & Francis Group.

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