The future of the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra: from rheumatoid arthritis to adult-onset Still's disease and systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
- PubMed: 18321234
BACKGROUND: IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a naturally occurring IL-1RI-binding molecule that blocks the biologic effects of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1. A recombinant form of human IL-1Ra, anakinra (Kineret), has been approved for use in rheumatology initially to manage rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients that are refractory to more conventional forms of treatment. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the experience with anakinra in the treatment of patients with rheumatic diseases emphasizing its beneficial effects in novel applications. METHODS: English-language trials of anakinra were searched using MEDLINE and abstracts from rheumatology scientific meetings. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: In the treatment of patients with RA anakinra is effective but inferior to TNF-alpha blocking agents. Over the last few years it has become increasingly evident that anakinra is highly effective and safe in patients with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still's disease, hereditary autoinflammatory syndromes, Schnitzler's syndrome and recently in gouty attacks.