General stress–strain relationship for concrete at elevated temperatures
- ISSN: 01410296
- DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2007.01.002
A general stressstrain relationship for concrete when subjected to fire is needed, as it allows designing concrete structures to specific fire- performance criteria and improves the understanding of the behaviour of these structures during fire events. Existing relationships are developed based on fire tests of unconfined concrete specimens. They provide significantly different predictions because of uniqueness of each relationship and the existence of numerous formulations for calculating the governing parameters. In this paper, available formulations for estimating the parameters affecting the behaviour of unconfined and confined concrete are presented. These parameters are concrete compressive strength, concrete tensile strength, concrete compressive strain at peak stress, initial modulus of elasticity of concrete, transient creep strain, thermal strain, and yield stress and bond strength of reinforcing bars. Recommendations for choosing specific formulations are made based on accuracy, generality, and simplicity. Suitable compressive and tensile stressstrain relationships at elevated temperatures that utilize the recommended formulations are proposed based on well-established relationships for confined concrete at ambient temperature. The proposed relationships are compared to existing ones and to the available experimental data. They can capture changes in the mechanical properties of concrete resulting from temperature and confinement and are found to be superior to existing relationships. However, additional tests are needed to further validate and improve the proposed relationships.