Hymenopteran venoms: striving toward the ultimate defense against vertebrates
New research included in chapter. Comprehensive tables including all known data relating the to painfullness of stings from any hymenopteran and listing the lethalities of the venoms of a great many taxa. The concept of lethal capacity, the killing power of a sting, developed. Biochemical and behavioral basis of defensive value of venoms. Chapter sections: venom from a prey's perspective; increased ecological opportunities as a result of venoms; the physiological and pharmacological basis of venom effectiveness; pain; venom lethality; nonlethal tissue damage; venoms and other defenses; allomones; pheromones; aposematism; tough integument and agility; venom limitations and predator factors; predator integument, conflicting venom roles - defense versus offense; predator resistance to venoms; predator behavior; predator hunger.