Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation at schools in Hong Kong
Five classrooms in Hong Kong (HK), air-conditioned or ceiling fans ventilated, were chosen for investigation of indoor and outdoor air quality. Parameters such as temperature, relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), respirable particulate matter (PM10), formaldehyde (HCHO), and total bacteria counts were monitored indoors and outdoors simultaneously. The average respirable particulate matter concentrations were higher than the HK Objective, and the maximum indoor PM10 level exceeded 1000 ??g/m3. Indoor CO2 concentrations often exceeded 1000 ??l/l in air-conditioning and ceiling fan classrooms, indicating inadequate ventilation. Maximum indoor CO2 level reached 5900 ??l/l during class at the classroom with cooling tower ventilation. Increasing the rate of ventilation or implementation of breaks between classes is recommended to alleviate the high CO2 level. Other pollution parameters measured in this study complied with the standards. The two most important classroom air quality problems in Hong Kong were PM10 and CO2 levels. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.