In-situ measurements of atmospheric hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) at the Shangdianzi regional background station, China
Atmospheric hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) were measured in-situ at the Shangdianzi (SDZ) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) regional background station, China, from May 2010 to May 2011. The time series for five HFCs and three PFCs showed occasionally high-concentration events while background conditions occurred for 36% (HFC-32) to 83% (PFC-218) of all measurements. The mean mixing ratios during background conditions were 24.5 ppt (parts per trillion, 10−12, molar) for HFC-23, 5.86 ppt for HFC-32, 9.97 ppt for HFC-125, 66.0 ppt for HFC-134a, 9.77 ppt for HFC-152a, 79.1 ppt for CF4, 4.22 ppt for PFC-116, and 0.56 ppt for PFC-218. The background mixing ratios for the compounds at SDZ are consistent with those obtained at mid to high latitude sites in the Northern Hemisphere. North-easterly winds were associated with negative contributions to atmospheric HFC and PFC loadings (mixing ratio anomalies weighted by time associated with winds in a given sector), whereas south-westerly advection (urban sector) showed positive loadings. Chinese emissions estimated by a tracer ratio method using carbon monoxide as tracer were 3.6 ± 3.2 kt yr−1 for HFC-23, 4.3 ± 3.6 kt yr−1 for HFC-32, 2.7 ± 2.3 kt yr−1 for HFC-125, 6.0 ± 5.6 kt yr−1 for HFC-134a, 2.0 ± 1.8 kt yr−1 for HFC-152a, 2.4 ± 2.1 kt yr−1 for CF4, 0.27 ± 0.26 kt yr−1 for PFC-116, and 0.061 ± 0.095 kt yr−1 for PFC-218. The lower HFC-23 emissions compared to earlier studies may be a result of the HFC-23 abatement measures taken as part of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects that started in 2005.