The NEO-FFI: emerging British norms and an item-level analysis suggest N, A and C are more reliable than O and E
- ISSN: 01918869
- DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00242-1
The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was given to 1025 British subjects as part of three independent research studies. Data from these studies were pooled and subjected to item-level analyses. Using standard scoring criteria from the measure provisional British norms were produced which were broadly equivalent to those obtained in the USA. The individual subscales showed good internal consistency. However, the item-level principal components analysis using varimax and oblique rotation and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that only the Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness traits were coherently represented in the main factors derived by the analysis. Openness and Extraversion factors did not show such stability or consistency. It is argued that as a result of these difficulties, thoughtlessly embracing the NEO-FFI as a quick and efficient instrument for measuring the `Big Five' personality traits is perhaps premature, as the instrument requires modification and improvement before it can truly be regarded as measuring five independent personality traits.