Processing effect on soybean storage proteins and their relationship with tofu quality
Tofu was prepared from 13 soybean varieties according to three different methods (bench, pilot, and production methods). Different soybean varieties showed significant differences in storage protein composition (glycinin and beta-conglycinin). The beta-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S) contents were 7.3-9.9 and 14.1-22.9% on the dry matter basis, respectively. The 11S/7S protein ratio varied from 1.64 to 2.51 among the varieties. Glycinin content and 11S/7S protein ratio of the 13 varieties did not change significantly from soy milk to tofu for the production and pilot methods. Soybean 11S/7S protein ratio positively correlated with the 11S/7S ratio of soy milk and tofu (0.57 < or = r < or = 0.83, p < or = 0.01). The correlation coefficient depended on the processing method. Processing method affected 7S and 11S protein contents of tofu and their contribution to tofu hardness, yield, and sensory quality. This may explain in part the contradictory findings of the relationships between storage proteins and tofu quality because processing methods differed in various studies.