Seed transmission of Cucumber mosaic virus in pepper.
Infection caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most important viral diseases of pepper worldwide. Young pepper seedlings were inoculated mechanically with CMV-Fny (Fast New York) isolate and were kept in growth chambers at 20-25 degrees C for symptom and fruit development. All inoculated plants developed severe mosaic symptoms and produced fruit except one. Mature seeds were isolated from fruits harvested from CMV-infected plants. Total RNA was extracted from pepper seeds and analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using CMV sub-group IA specific primers. Analysis of individual whole seeds showed that seed-borne infection of CMV in pepper ranged from 95 to 100%. Further seed-growth tests were performed in Petri dishes and CMV was detected in both seed coat and embryo. Seed coat infection of CMV ranged from 53 to 83% while that of the embryo ranged from 10 to 46%. Seed-growth tests in pots were also performed and the rate of seed transmission was approximately 10 to 14%. This is the first report of CMV seed transmission in pepper.