Training for Performance : Insights From Molecular Biology The Training Adaptation :
World records for performances over a wide range of athletic events continue to improve on a regular basis. In the search for novel and better methods of prepara- tion for competition, scientists, coaches, and practitioners constantly seek out the latest information on training, nutrition, and other related disciplines in an attempt to gain a competitive edge for athletes. With recent advances in technology such as real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), high-throughput chip analyses, and new and improved antibodies, several techniques are now readily available to study the effects of various training interventions on a variety of early-response genes and signaling proteins in skeletal muscle. Although it cannot presently be claimed that such scientifi c endeavors have infl uenced the training practices of elite athletes, these new and exciting technologies have provided insight into how current training techniques result in specifi c muscular adaptations and might ultimately provide clues for future and novel training methodologies. In this com- mentary we discuss the molecular basis of the training adaptation and review the role for several key signaling proteins important in the adaptation to endurance and resistance training.