Transfer of resistance against the beet cyst nematode from radish (Raphanus sativus) to rape (Brassica napus) by monosomic chromosome addition
In rape ( Brassica napus), no resistance to the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii is available. This study was carried out to determine the specific chromosome(s) of resistant radish ( Raphanus sativus) carrying the gene(s) for nematode resistance as a prequisite to convert rape from a host into a trap crop for this pest. A Raphanobrassica progeny of 25 plants was analyzed which segregated for all nine chromosomes of the Raphanus genome in a genetic background of synthetic rape. The number of radish chromosomes was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, using the Raphanus-specific DNA probe pURsN; and their type was identified by chromosome-specific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Five different multiple rape-radish chromosome additions (comprising the whole set of nine radish chromosomes, a-i) were selected and crossed to rape. For each cross-progeny, the number of cysts on plant roots was counted 42 days after inoculation with a L2 larvae suspension. Simultaneously, the plants were characterized for the presence or absence of individual radish chromosomes, using sets of chromosome-specific markers. Thus, the effect of each radish chromosome on cyst number was tested. Chromosome d had a major resistance effect, whereas the presence/absence of the other radish chromosomes had nearly no influence on cyst number. Plants with added chromosome d showed a resistance level comparable with that of the radish donor parent. The analysis in the cross to rape of a plant monosomic only for chromosome d confirmed the strong effect of this chromosome on nematode resistance. A further experiment comprising seven crosses using winter rape breeding lines and monosomic addition line d as pollen parent provided the same results on a broader genetic basis. In each case, the added chromosome d in a single dosage caused nearly the full resistance of the radish donor. Resistance was independent of the glucosinolate content in the roots. The possibilities for stabilizing BCN resistance in rape and its use for other crops and nematodes are discussed.