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The zonal structure of tropical O<sub>3</sub> and CO as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer in November 2004 – Part 2: Impact of surface emissions on O<sub>3</sub> and its precursors

by K. W. Bowman, D. B. A. Jones, J. A. Logan, H. Worden, F. Boersma, R. Chang, S. Kulawik, G. Osterman, P. Hamer, J. Worden show all authors
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ()

Abstract

The impact. of surface emissions on the zonal structure of tropical\ntropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide is investigated for November 2004\nusing satellite observations, in-situ measurements, and chemical\ntransport models in conjunction with inverse-estimated surface\nemissions. Vertical ozone profiles from the Tropospheric Emission\nSpectrometer (TES) and ozone sonde measurements from the Southern\nHemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network show elevated\nconcentrations of ozone over Indonesia and Australia (60-70 ppb) in the\nlower troposphere against the backdrop of the well-known zonal\n``wave-one{''} pattern with ozone concentrations of (70-80 ppb) centered\nover the Atlantic. Observational evidence from TES CO vertical profiles\nand Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 columns point to regional\nsurface emissions as an important contributor to the elevated ozone over\nIndonesia. This contribution is investigated with the GEOS-Chem\nchemistry and transport model using surface emission estimates derived\nfrom an optimal inverse model, which was constrained by TES and\nMeasurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) CO profiles (Jones\net al., 2009). These a posteriori estimates, which were over a factor of\n2 greater than climatological emissions, reduced differences between\nGEOS-Chem and TES ozone observations by 30-40% over Indonesia. The\nresponse of the free tropospheric chemical state to the changes in these\nemissions is investigated for ozone, CO, NOx, and PAN. Model simulations\nindicate that ozone over Indonesian/Australian is sensitive to regional\nchanges in surface emissions of NOx but relatively insensitive to\nlightning NOx. Over sub-equatorial Africa and South America, free\ntropospheric NOx, was reduced in response to increased surface emissions\npotentially muting ozone production.

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