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Automatic and controlled processing revisited.

by R M Shiffrin, W Schneider
Psychological review ()
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The theory of automatic and controlled processing outlined in Schneider and Shiffrin (1977) and in Shiffrin and Schneider (1977) is defended in the present note. We argue that the criticisms of Ryan (1983) range from irrelevant to incorrect, based on a brief review of data from the 1977 articles and on some more recent publications. The evidence Ryan discusses comes from the prememorized-list paradigm, a par- adigm that undoubtedly involves automatic and controlled processes but probably not automatic detection and controlled search. We argue that a variety of mechanisms consistent with our general theory, some automatic and some controlled, could be operating in the prememorized-list paradigm and can explain the observed results.

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