Cadmium: toxicity and tolerance in plants
Of all the non-essential heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) is perhaps the metal which has attracted the most attention in soil science and plant nutrition due to its potential toxicity to humans, and also its relative mobility in the soil-plant system. This review summarizes the toxic symptoms of Cd in plants (i.e. growth retardation, alterations of photosynthesis, stomatal movement, enzymatic activities, water relations, interferences with mineral uptake, protein metabolism, membrane functioning, etc.) but also includes the mechanisms of cadmium uptake, translocation and deposition. Moreover, it also throws light on chelation, including identification of Cd ligands present in cytosol and vascular tissue. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress is also considered as one of the most widely studied topics in this review.