The concept of resilience revisited
OBJECTIVE: The concept of resilience highlights the complexity of psychopathology, helps to clarify possibilities for prevention and keeps hope alive in clinical practice. This paper reviews definitions of resilience, the nature of risk factors and of moderating processes. METHOD: The place of single case studies is described, the components of resilience are outlined and consideration is given to how resilience can be fostered in the face of adversities and stresses: socio-economic deprivation, family discord and divorce, and maternal depression. CONCLUSION: A plea is made for increased efforts to make knowledge more widely available: public and politicians need to know how decisions about housing, employment, welfare, education and criminal justice impinge on the development of children, and what changes in the macro-environment will preserve and enhance childhood resilience.