Creatine and Creatinine Metabolism

by a Zontak, S Sideman, O Verbitsky, R Beyar, W P Zhu, X R Xin, Nina Zaproudina, Ville Varmavuo, Olavi Airaksinen, Matti Narhi, Matti Närhi, Joanna Zapolska, Katarzyna Witczak, Angelika Manczuk, Lucyna Ostrowska, Angelika Mańczuk, Lucyna Ostrowska, Nelo Eidy Zanchi, Frederico Gerlinger-Romero, Lucas Guimarães-Ferreira, Mário Alves de Siqueira Filho, Vitor Felitti, Fabio Santos Lira, Marília Seelaender, Antonio Herbert Lancha, Ayako Yasuoka, Hiroko Kubo, Kazuyo Tsuzuki, Norio Isoda, Markus Wyss, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, A Biosynthesis, Creatinine Degradation Pathways, D Ck, Jacob M Wilson, Peter J Fitschen, Bill Campbell, Gabriel J Wilson, Nelo Eidy Zanchi, Lem Taylor, Colin Wilborn, Douglas S Kalman, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Hector L Lopez, Richard B Kreider, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jose Antonio, Daniël Wendt, Luc J C Van Loon, Wouter D. Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Chi Pang Wen, Jackson Pui Man Wai, Min Kuang Tsai, Chien Hua Chen, M Vrablík, M Dobiášová, L Zlatohlávek, Z Urbanová, R Č Eška, Mathias Voelzke, Norman Stutzig, Hans-Alexander Thorhauer, Urs Granacher, J. V C Vargas, Marcos Leal Brioschi, F. G. Dias, M. B. Parolin, F. a. Mulinari-Brenner, J. C. Ordonez, D. Colman, R Vardasca, Efj J Francis J Ring, P Plassman, C D Jones, Cameron J van den Heuvel, Sally a Ferguson, Drew Dawson, Saul S Gilbert, Boris G Vainer, Christopher James Tyler, M Torii, M Yamasaki, T Sasaki, H Nakayama, R T Thotpe, A J Strudwick, M Buchheir, G Atkinson, Barry Drust, W Gregson, Hirofumi Tanaka, Kevin D. Monahan, Douglas R. 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Mesquita, Márcia Braz Rossetti, Raquel Rodrigues Britto, Rocksane De Carvalho Norton, Hamilton Roschel, Valmor Tricolli, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Efj J Francis J Ring, Kurt Ammer, Ben Rattray, Christos Argus, Kristy Martin, Joseph Northey, Matthew Driller, Zsolt Radak, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Mitsuru Higuchi, Laszlo Balogh, Istvan Boldogh, Erika Koltai, Alessandra Pratesi, Francesca Tarantini, Mauro Di Bari, Scott K Powers, Kurt J Sollanek, Shawn Portal, Zvi Zadik, Jonathan Rabinowitz, Ruty Pilz-Burstein, Dana Adler-Portal, Yoav Meckel, Dan M. Cooper, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet, Sergio Piñonosa, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, Luka Milanović, Javier Coterón, Javier Sampedro, Stuart M. Phillips, Giselle a. P. Pereira, Patrícia S. Genaro, Marcelo M. Pinheiro, Vera L. Szejnfeld, Lígia a. Martini, Ana L. F. Pereira, Aldo M Costa, Patricia Santos, Teresa Figueiredo, Paulo Vicente João, T.F. Vidal, P. B. L Constant, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Mark A. 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Fatouros, Arcangelo Merla, Peter a. Mattei, Luigi Di Donato, Gian Luca Romani, Igor B Mekjavic, Ola Eiken, Matthew McCoy, Ismay Iain Campbell, Pamela Stone, Curtis Fedorchuk, Sameera Wijayawardana, Kirk Easley, William D. McArdle, Frank I. Katch, Victor L. Katch, Et Al., J.C.B. Joao C B João Carlos Bouzas Marins, Danilo Gomes Moreira Moreira, Sergio Piñonosa Cano, Manuel Sillero Quintana, Danusa Dias Soares, A.A. Alex de Andrade Fernandes, Francisco MRM Fabrício Sousa da Silva, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, P.R.S. Paulo Roberto S dos Santos Amorim, Et Al., I. Fernandez-Cuevas, J ARNAIZ-LASTRAS, A.A. Alex de Andrade Fernandes, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, Sergio Piñonosa Cano, Danilo Gomes Moreira Moreira, F. S. da Silva, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, I. Fernandez-Cuevas, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, Et Al., M Marfell-Jones, T Olds, a a Stewart, Et Al., Rui. Marcelino, José Jose. Afonso, José Cicero Moraes, Isabel. Mesquita, Jaime. Sampaio, José Cicero. Jose Cicero. Moraes, José Jose. Afonso, José Cicero. Jose Cicero. Moraes, Isabel. Mesquita, Graziela ; Mantoanelli, Maria Sylvia de Souza ; Vitalle, Olga Maria Silverio Amancio, Gregory S. Makowsky, Fabio Santos Lira, Valdir DE Aquino Lemos, Irene G Bittar, Aline V Caris, Ronaldo V Dos Santos, Sergio Tufik, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Claudio T DE Souza, Gustavo D Pimentel, Marco T DE Mello, Koen Levels, Jos J de Koning, Carl Foster, Hein A M Daanen, Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena, Damon L Swift, Neil M Johannsen, Xuemei Sui, Duck-chul Lee, Conrad P Earnest, Timothy S Church, James H O Keefe, Richard V Milani, Steven N Blair, M Harold Laughlin, Michael J Davis, Niels H Secher, Johannes J van Lieshout, Arturo A Arce-Esquivel, Grant H Simmons, Shawn B Bender, Jaume Padilla, Robert J Bache, Daphne Merkus, Dirk J Duncker, Martin Lamontagne-Lacasse, Raymond Nadon, D B Goulet E, Michael Ian Lambert, Jill Borresen, B. B. Lahiri, S. Bagavathiappan, T. Jayakumar, John Philip, S. Lagüela, H. González-Jorge, J. Armesto, P. Arias, Eleazar Samuel Kolosovas-Machuca, Francisco Javier Gonzalez, Darko Kolaric, Zeljko Herceg, Iskra Alexandra Nola, Vesna Ramljak, Tomislav Kulis, Jadranka Katancic Holjevac, Judith A Deutsch, Svetlana Antonini, Robert a. Kloner, Shereif H. Rezkalla, Sook He Kim, Hye Young P. Kim, Woo Kyung Kim, Ock Jin Park, Ji Yeon Kim, Deborah a Kennedy, Tanya Y Lee, Dugald Seely, Wb Kannel, Rb D'Agostino, Aj Belanger, B F Jones, John M. Johnson, Dean L Kellogg, L J Jiang, E Y K Ng, A C B Yeo, S Wu, F Pan, W Y Yau, J H Chen, Y Yang, Dea Karaba Jakovljevic, Damir Lukac, Nikola Grujic, Miodrag Drapsin, Aleksandar Klasnja, a S Jackson, M L Pollock, A Ward, S J Hwang, C M Ballantyne, A R Sharrett, L C Smith, C E Davis, A M Jr Gotto, E Boerwinkle, Marcia Daskal Hirschbruch, K Hirata, T Nagasaka, Y Noda, M Hill, C Talbot, M Price, Y Hellsten, M Nyberg, L G Jensen, Stefan P Mortensen, Marc J Heikens, Alexander M Gorbach, Henry S Eden, David M Savastano, Kong Y Chen, Monica C Skarulis, Jack a Yanovski, Keiji Hayashi, Takayo Kawashima, Yuichi Suzuki, M J Hasselberg, J McMahon, K Parker, R C Harris, K Söderlund, E Hultman, S. L. Halson, Bruno Gualano, Fernanda Michelone Acquesta, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Valmor Tricoli, Júlio Cerca Serrão, Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior, José González-Alonso, Craig G Crandall, John M. Johnson, I Odolfo M A I Gari, Jair Rodrigues Garcia Júnior, Tânia Cristina Pithon-Curi, Rui Curi, Carol Ewing Garber, Bryan Blissmer, Michael R Deschenes, Barry A Franklin, Michael J Lamonte, I-Min Lee, David C Nieman, David P Swain, Maria Gacek, Mariusz Paweel Furmanek, Kajetan Slomka, Grzegorz Juras, Thiago Rocha Freire, Mylena Maria Salgueiro Santana, Jader Pereira de Farias Neto, Marzo Edir da Silva Grigoletto, Walderi Monteiro da Silva Júnior, Fre, Fédération Internationale De Volleyball Fivb, Christian P. Fischer, Ismael Fernández-Cuevas, Joao Carlos Bouzas Marins, Javier Arnáiz Lastras, Pedro María Gómez Carmona, Sergio Piñonosa Cano, Miguel Ángel García-Concepción, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, Ismael Fernández Cuevas, A.A. Alex de Andrade Fernandes, Ciro José Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos Brito, Anselmo Gomes Moura, Danilo Gomes Moreira Moreira, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, J.C.B. Joao C B João Carlos Bouzas Marins, P.R.S. Paulo Roberto S dos Santos Amorim, T.N. Prímola-Gomes, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, Ismael Fernández Cuevas, R.G. G. Silva, J.C. C. Pereira, J.C.B. Joao C B João Carlos Bouzas Marins, T. N. Pr??mola-Gomes, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, I. Fern??ndez Cuevas, R.G. G. Silva, J.C. C. Pereira, J.C.B. Joao C B João Carlos Bouzas Marins, Mark A. Febbraio, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Suzanne J L Einöther, Timo Giesbrecht, Faculdade De Edu-, Escola De Educa-, D Du Bois, E F Du Bois, Aldo Di Carlo, Fulvia Elia, Flora Desiderio, Caterina Catricala, Francesco M Solivetti, Luigi Laino, Michaela C Devries, Stuart M. Phillips, Juan Del Coso, Alberto Pérez-López, Javier Abian-Vicen, Juan Jose Salinero, Beatriz Lara, David Valadés, Caio Marcio Barros de Oliveira, Rioko Kimiko Sakata, Adriana Machado Issy, Luis Roberto Gerola, Reynaldo Salomão, A Davie, J Amoore, Fernández Cuevas, Manuel Sillero Quintana, Miguel Angel, Garcia Concepcion, Juan Ribot Serrano, Pedro Gomez Carmona, J.C.B. Joao C B João Carlos Bouzas Marins, Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Maria Carolina Borges, Julio Tirapegui, Éder Ricardo Petry, Julio Tirapegui, O F Creatine, Craig G Crandall, Thad E Wilson, Kevin C Kregel, Lop Costa, Dm Samulski, Gustavo De Conti Teixeira. Costa, Renato Vieira. Barbosa, Jurandy Guimarães. Gama Filho, Confederação Brasileira de Voleibol, New Co-investigator, Graeme L Close, Exercise Sciences, German E Clenin, Mareike Cordes, Andreas Huber, Yorck Olaf Schumacher, Patrick Noack, John Scales, Susi Kriemler, R P Clark, B J Mullan, L G Pugh, J K Choi, K Miki, S Sagawa, K Shiraki, D M Chisholm, M L Collis, L L Kulak, W Davenport, N Gruber, Nisha Charkoudian, Fernanda Menezes Cerqueira, Marisa Helena Gennari Medeiros, Ohara Augusto, Roberta Ceci, Guglielmo Duranti, Paolo Sgr??, Massimiliano Sansone, Laura Guidetti, Carlo Baldari, Stefania Sabatini, Luigi Di Luigi, Luiz Carlos, Marques Vanderlei, Simone Cappelletti, Piacentino Daria, Gabriele Sani, Mariarosaria Aromatario, Ismay Iain Campbell, Christopher Byrne, Chin Leong Lim, Catriona Burdon, Helen O'Connor, Janelle Gifford, Susan Shirreffs, Phillip Chapman, Nathan Johnson, G. E. Burch, Michael J Buono, Amy Jechort, Raquel Marques, Carrie Smith, Jessica Welch, Tom D. Brutsaert, Sonia Hernandez-Cordero, Juan Rivera, Tracey Viola, Gail Hughes, Jere D. Haas, R A Bruce, F Kusumi, D Hosmer, J Brockwell, Y Yeung, J F Griffith, Marcos Leal Brioschi, Francisco MRM Fabrício Sousa da Silva, José Fernando Macedo, Rodrigo De Almeida Coelho Macedo, Nabila Bouzida, Abdelhakim Bendada, Xavier P. Maldague, G A Borg, J.M. Bland, D.G. Altman, A Biosynthesis, Creatinine Degradation Pathways, D Ck, Simone Biesek, Letícia Azen Alves, Isabela Gerra, K BEALS, Fábio Bandeira, E.B. Eduardo Borba Neves, Marcos Antônio Muniz Antonio Muniz de Moura, Percy Nohama, Mauren Abreu de Souza, Percy Nohama, E.B. Eduardo Borba Neves, Anthony R. Bain, Ollie Jay, Tomasz M. Deren, Ollie Jay, G Atkinson, Am Nevill, Ahlem Arfaoui, William M Bertucci, Thierry Letellier, Guillaume Polidori, Francine Caetano Andrade, Liam Anderson, Patrick Orme, Rocco Di Michele, Graeme L Close, Jordan Milsom, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust, James P Morton, Kurt Ammer, Efj J Francis J Ring, John a. Ambrose, Rajat S. Barua, Leandro Ricardo Altimari, Antonio Carlos De Moraes, Julio Tirapegui, Regina Lúcia de Moraes Moreau, Hani H. Al-Nakhli, Jerrold S. Petrofsky, Michael S. Laymon, Lee S. Berk, Daisuke. Arai, Kelli. Holland, Lee S. Berk, B Y Alfred, O F Loren, T H E Assistance, E. B. Akimov, R. S. Andreev, Yu. N. Kalenov, a. a. Kirdin, V. D. Son’kin, a. G. Tonevitsky, V D Son'kin, Ildus I Ahmetov, Olga N Fedotovskaya, Naser Ahmadi, Gary L. McQuilkin, Mohammad W. Akhtar, Fereshteh Hajsadeghi, Stanley J. Kleis, Harvey Hecht, Morteza Naghavi, Matthew Budoff, José Jose. Afonso, Francisca Esteves, Rui Araújo, Luke Thomas, Isabel. Mesquita, Jakub Grzegorz Adamczyk, Dariusz Boguszewski, Marcin Siewierski, Et Al., M Abate, L Di Carlo, Luigi Di Donato, Gian Luca Romani, Arcangelo Merla show all authors
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte ()
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Abstract

The goal of this review is to present a comprehensive survey of the many intriguing facets of creatine (Cr) and creatinine metabolism, encompassing the pathways and regulation of Cr biosynthesis and degradation, species and tissue distribution of the enzymes and metabolites involved, and of the inherent implications for physiology and human pathology. Very recently, a series of new discoveries have been made that are bound to have distinguished implications for bioenergetics, physiology, human pathology, and clinical diagnosis and that suggest that deregulation of the creatine kinase (CK) system is associated with a variety of diseases. Disturbances of the CK system have been observed in muscle, brain, cardiac, and renal diseases as well as in cancer. On the other hand, Cr and Cr analogs such as cyclocreatine were found to have antitumor, antiviral, and antidiabetic effects and to protect tissues from hypoxic, ischemic, neurodegenerative, or muscle damage. Oral Cr ingestion is used in sports as an ergogenic aid, and some data suggest that Cr and creatinine may be precursors of food mutagens and uremic toxins. These findings are discussed in depth, the interrelationships are outlined, and all is put into a broader context to provide a more detailed understanding of the biological functions of Cr and of the CK system.

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