Deterrents to nurses' participation in continuing professional development: an integrative literature review.
BACKGROUND: Continuing education (CE) helps nurses keep their practice safe and current. Although the literature provides information about motivating strategies, learning styles and settings, and reinforcement of the need to update skills, little research has focused on barriers to nurses' CE program attendance. This literature review describes factors that deter nurses' CE attendance. METHODS: Ten research studies published between 1990 and 2008 addressing barriers to nurses' CE participation were located. RESULTS: The most frequent deterrents found were the cost of attending CE, inability to get time off from work to attend CE, and child care and home responsibilities. CONCLUSION: Leaders supporting CE must understand factors that motivate and prevent nurses from participating in CE. Implications from this study can assist educators to develop CE offerings to better meet staff needs and increase participation.