Development and evaluation of the aerosol dynamics and gas phase chemistry model ADCHEM
The aim of this work was to develop a model ideally suited for detailed studies on aerosol dynamics, gas and particle phase chemistry within urban plumes, from local scale (11 km super(2)) to regional or global scale. This article describes and evaluates the trajectory model for Aerosol Dynamics, gas and particle phase CHEMistry and radiative transfer (ADCHEM), which has been developed and used at Lund University since 2007. The model treats both vertical and horizontal dispersion perpendicular to an air mass trajectory (2-space dimensions), which is not treated in Lagrangian box-models (0-space dimensions). The Lagrangian approach enables a more detailed representation of the aerosol dynamics, gas and particle phase chemistry and a finer spatial and temporal resolution compared to that of available regional 3D-CTMs. These features make it among others ideally suited for urban plume studies. The aerosol dynamics model includes Brownian coagulation, dry deposition, wet deposition, in-cloud processing, condensation, evaporation, primary particle emissions and homogeneous nucleation. The gas phase chemistry model calculates the gas phase concentrations of 63 different species, using 119 different chemical reactions. Daily isoprene and monoterpene emissions from European forests were simulated separately with the vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, and included as input to ADCHEM. ADCHEM was used to simulate the ageing of the urban plumes from the city of Malmoe in Southern Sweden (280 000 inhabitants). Several sensitivity tests were performed concerning the number of size bins, size structure method, coupled or uncoupled condensation, the volatility basis set (VBS) or traditional 2-product model for secondary organic aerosol formation, different aerosol dynamic processes and vertical and horizontal mixing. The simulations show that the full-stationary size structure gives accurate results with little numerical diffusion when more than 50 size bins are used between 1.5 and 2500 nm, while the moving-center method is preferable when only a few size bins are selected. The particle number size distribution in the center of the urban plume from Malmoe is mainly affected by dry deposition, coagulation and condensation, and is relatively insensitive to moderate variations in the vertical and horizontal mixing, as long as the mixing height is relatively uniform. The modeled PM sub(2.5) was dominated by organics, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium. If treating the condensation of HNO sub(3) and NH sub(3) as a coupled process (pH independent) the model gave lower nitrate PM sub(2.5) values than if considering uncoupled condensation. However, both methods gave similar and significant temporal variation in the particulate nitrate content, primarily due to fluctuation in the relative humidity.