The use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for biosensing
This review introduces the basic concepts and terms associated with impedance and techniques of measuring impedance. The focus of this review is on the application of this transduction method for sensing purposes. Examples of its use in combination with enzymes, antibodies, DNA and with cells will be described. Important fields of application include immune and nucleic acid analysis. Special attention is devoted to the various electrode design and amplification schemes developed for sensitivity enhancement. Electrolyte insulator semiconductor (EIS) structures will be treated separately.