Global mapping of maximum emission heights and resulting vertical profiles of wildfire emissions
The problem of characteristic vertical profile of smoke released from\nwildland fires is considered. A methodology for bottom-up evaluation of\nthis profile is suggested and a corresponding global dataset is\ncalculated. The profile estimation is based on: (i) a semi-empirical\nformula for plume-top height recently suggested by the authors, (ii)\nsatellite observations of active wildland fires, and (iii)\nmeteorological conditions evaluated for each fire using output of the\nnumerical weather prediction model. Injection profiles of the plumes\nfrom all fires recorded globally from March 2000 till November 2012 are\nestimated with a time step of 1 h. The resulting 4-dimensional dataset\nis split into daytime and nighttime subsets. The subsets are projected\nonto a global grid with a resolution of 1 degrees x 1 degrees x 500 m,\naggregated to a monthly level, and normalised by total emissions in each\nvertical column. Evaluation of the obtained dataset was performed in\nseveral ways. Firstly, the quality of the semiempirical formula for\nplume-top computations was evaluated using updated MISR fire Plume\nHeight Project data. Secondly, the upper percentiles of the profiles are\ncompared with an independent dataset of space lidar CALIOP. Thirdly, the\nresults are compared with the distribution suggested for AEROCOM\nmodelling community. Finally, the inter-annual variations of the\ncalculated profiles are estimated.