Individual differences in dispositional expressiveness: development and validation of the Emotional Expressivity Scale.
Although emotional expressivity figures prominently in several theories of psychological and physi- cal functioning, limitations of currently available measurement techniques impede precise and eco- nomical testing of these theories. The 17-item Emotional Expressivity Scale (EES) was designed as a self-report measure of the extent to which people outwardly display their emotions. Reliability stud- ies showed the EES to be an internally consistent and stable individual-difference measure. Valida- tional studies established initial convergent and discriminant validities, a moderate relationship be- tween self-rated and other-rated expression, and correspondence between self-report and laboratory- measured expressiveness using both college student and community populations. The potential for the EES to promote and integrate findings across diverse areas of research is discussed.