Investigation of gaseous and particulate emissions from various marine vessel types measured on the banks of the Elbe in Northern Germany
Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological quantities using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe in an emission control area (ECA) which is passed by numerous private and commercial marine vessels reaching and leaving the port of Hamburg, Germany. From 25-29 April 2011 a total of 178 vessels were probed at a distance of about 0.8-1.2 km with high temporal resolution. 139 ship emission plumes were of sufficient quality to be analyzed further and to determine emission factors (EFs). Concentrations of aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and black carbon were measured in PM1 and size distribution instruments covered the diameter range from 6 nm up to 32 mu m. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gases (O-3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2) in the air and a weather station provided wind, precipitation, solar radiation data and other quantities. Together with ship information for each vessel obtained from Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts a detailed characterization of the individual ship types and of features affecting gas and particulate emissions is provided. Particle number EFs (average 2.6e+16 # kg(-1)) and PM1 mass EFs (average 2.4 g kg(-1)) tend to increase with the fuel sulfur content. Observed PM1 composition of the vessel emissions was dominated by organic matter (72 %), sulfate (22 %) and black carbon (6 %) while PAHs only account for 0.2% of the submicron aerosol mass. Measurements of gaseous components showed an increase of SO2 (average EF: 7.7 g kg(-1)) and NOx (average EF: 53 g kg(-1)) while O-3 decreased when a ship plume reached the sampling site. The particle number size distributions of the vessels are generally characterized by a bimodal size distribution, with the nucleation mode in the 10-20 nm diameter range and a combustion aerosol mode centered at about 35 nm while particles > 1 mu m were not found. "High particle number emitters" are characterized by a dominant nucleation mode. By contrast, increased particle concentrations around 150 nm primarily occurred for "high black carbon emitters". Classifying the vessels according to their gross tonnage shows a decrease of the number, black carbon and PAH EFs while EFs of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, AMS species (particulate organics, sulfate) and PM1 mass concentration increase with increasing gross tonnages.