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Laboratory-Derived Friction Laws and Their Application To Seismic Faulting

by Chris Marone
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences ()
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This paper reviews rock friction and the frictional properties of\nearthquake faults. The basis for rate- and state-dependent friction laws\nis reviewed. The friction state variable is discussed, including its\ninterpretation as a measure of average asperity contact time and\nporosity within granular fault gouge. Data are summarized showing that\nfriction evolves even during truly stationary contact, and the\nconnection between modern friction laws and the concept of ``static{''}\nfriction is discussed. Measurements of frictional healing, as evidenced\nby increasing static friction during quasistationary contact, are\nreviewed, as are their implications for fault healing. Shear\nlocalization in fault gouge is discussed, and the relationship between\nmicrostructures and friction is reviewed. These data indicate\ndifferences in the behavior of bare rock surfaces as compared to shear\nwithin granular fault gouge that can be attributed to dilation within\nfault gouge. Physical models for the characteristic friction distance\nare discussed and related to the problem of scaling this parameter to\nseismic faults. Earthquake afterslip, its relation to laboratory\nfriction data, and the inverse correlation between afterslip and shallow\ncoseismic slip are discussed in the context of a model for afterslip.\nRecent observations of the absence of afterslip are predicted by the\nmodel.

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