Measurement and modeling of work function changes during low energy cesium sputtering
In this paper, a H-terminated silicon wafer was bombarded by low energy cesium ions during ToF-SIMS analysis and work function variations of the target were measured for different analysis conditions. This measurement was performed by measuring the shift of the secondary ions energy distributions with a reflectron type analyzer. At first, the silicon's work function change was found to be -2.3 eV during 500 eV Cs+ bombardment at 45°. This effect is due to the creation of a dipolar layer at the surface of the silicon by the implanted cesium. Then the work function variation was measured at 300 eV for varying cesium surface concentrations. The work function was found to decrease monotonously with the increasing cesium surface concentration, as during cesium adsorption experiments. The results were modeled following three different approaches and the value of the effective polarizability α of cesium was found to be equal to 1.9 × 10-39 C m2/V. Finally, the effect of the bombardment energy on the work function variation was studied for beams with energies ranging from 250 to 2000 eV. The effective polarizability of cesium was found to increase with increasing Cs beam energy. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.