A numerical study of contributions to air pollution in Beijing during CAREBeijing-2006
An online air pollutant tagged module has been developed in the Nested Air Quality Prediction Model System (NAQPMS) to investigate the impact of local and regional sources on the air pollutants in Beijing during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006). The NAQPMS model shows high performance in simulating sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM(10)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and ozone (O(3)) with overall better agreements with the observations at urban sites than rural areas. With the tagged module, the air pollutant contributions from local and regional sources to the surface layer (about 30 m) and the upper layer (about 1.1 km) in Beijing are differentiated and estimated. The air pollutants at the surface layer in Beijing are dominated by the contributions from local sources, accounting for 65% of SO(2), 75% of PM(10) and nearly 90% of NO(2), respectively, comparatively, the 1.1 km layer has large source contributions from the surrounding regions (e. g., southern Beijing), accounting for more than 50% of the SO(2) and PM(10) concentrations. County scale analysis is also performed and the results suggest that Tianjin is the dominant source of SO(2) in Pinggu County, and Langfang, Hebei is the most important regional contributor to PM(10) in Beijing. Moreover, the surrounding regions show larger impact on SO(2), PM(10) and NO(2) in the eastern counties of Beijing (e. g., Pinggu, Tongzhou and Daxing) than those in western Beijing, which is likely due to the Beijing's semi-basin topography and the summer monsoon. Our results indicate that the efforts to control the air pollutants in Beijing should focus on controlling both local and regional emissions.